Sanskrit notes – 5

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om — the combination of letters om (om-kara); eka-aksaram — the one syllable; brahma — absolute; vyaharan — vibrating; mam — Me (Krsna); anusmaran — remembering; yah — anyone who; prayati — leaves; tyajan — quitting; deham — this body; sah — he; yati — achieves; paramam — the supreme; gatim — destination.
ananya-cetah — without deviation of the mind; satatam — always; yah — anyone who; mam — Me (Krsna); smarati — remembers; nityasah — regularly; tasya — to him; su-labhah — very easy to achieve; partha — O son of Prtha; yuktasya — engaged; yoginah — for the devotee.
mam — Me; upetya — achieving; punah — again; janma — birth; duhkha-alayam — place of miseries; asasvatam — temporary; na — never; apnuvanti — attain; maha-atmanah — the great souls; samsiddhim — perfection; paramam — ultimate; gatah — having achieved.
a-brahma-bhuvanat — up to the Brahmaloka planet; lokah — the planetary systems; punah — again; avartinah — returning; arjuna — O Arjuna; mam — unto Me; upetya — arriving; tu — but; kaunteya — O son of Kunti; punah janma — rebirth; na — never; vidyate — takes place.
sahasra — one thousand; yuga — millenniums; paryantam — including; ahah — day; yat — that which; brahmanah — of Brahma; viduh — they know; ratrim — night; yuga — millenniums; sahasra-antam — similarly, ending after one thousand; te — they; ahah-ratra — day and night; vidah — who understand; janah — people.
avyaktat — from the unmanifest; vyaktayah — living entities; sarvah — all; prabhavanti — become manifest; ahah-agame — at the beginning of the day; ratri-agame — at the fall of night; praliyante — are annihilated; tatra — into that; avyakta — the unmanifest; samjnake — which is called.
bhuta-gramah — the aggregate of all living entities; sah — these; ayam — this; bhutva bhutva — repeatedly taking birth; praliyate — is annihilated;
ratri —night;
agame — on the arrival; avasah — automatically; partha — O son of Prtha; prabhavati — is manifest; ahah — of daytime; agame — on the arrival.
parah — transcendental; tasmat — to that; tu — but; bhavah — nature; anyah — another; avyaktah — unmanifest; avyaktat — to the unmanifest; sanatanah — eternal; yah sah — that which; sarvesu — all; bhutesu — manifestation; nasyatsu — being annihilated; na — never; vinasyati — is annihilated.
avyaktah — unmanifested; aksarah — infallible; uktah — is said; tam — that; ahuh — is known; paramam — the ultimate; gatim — destination; yam — which; prapya — gaining; na — never; nivartante — come back; tat — that; dhama — abode; paramam — supreme; mama — My.
purusah — the Supreme Personality; sah — He; parah — the Supreme, than whom no one is greater; partha — O son of Prtha; bhaktya — by devotional service; labhyah — can be achieved; tu — but; ananyaya — unalloyed, undeviating; yasya — whom; antah-sthani — within; bhutani — all of this material manifestation; yena — by whom; sarvam — all; idam — whatever we can see; tatam — is pervaded.
yatra — at which; kale — time; tu — and; anavrttim — no return; avrttim — return; ca — also; yoginah — different kinds of mystics; prayatah — having departed; yanti — attain; tam — that; kalam — time; vaksyami — I shall describe; bharata-rsabha — O best of the Bharatas.
agnih — fire; jyotih — light; ahah — day; suklah — the white fortnight; sat-masah — the six months; uttara-ayanam — when the sun passes on the northern side; tatra — there; prayatah — those who pass away; gacchanti — go; brahma — to the Absolute; brahma-vidah — who know the Absolute; janah — persons.
dhumah — smoke; tatha — also; krsnah — the fortnight of the dark moon; sat-masah — the six months; daksina-ayanam — when the sun passes on the southern side; tatra — there; candramasam — the moon planet; jyotih — the light; yogi — the mystic; prapya — achieving; nivartate — comes back.
sukla — light; krsne — and darkness; gati — ways of passing; hi — certainly; ete — these two; jagatah — of the material world; sasvate — of the Vedas; mate — in the opinion; ekaya — by one; yati — goes; anavrttim — to no return; anyaya — by the other; avartate — comes back; punah — again.
na — never; ete — these two; srti — different paths; partha — O son of Prtha; janan — even if he knows; yogi — the devotee of the Lord; muhyati — is bewildered; kascana — any; tasmat — therefore; sarvesu kalesu — always; yoga-yuktah — engaged in Krsna consciousness; bhava — just become; arjuna — O Arjuna.
vedesu — in the study of the Vedas; yajnesu — in the performances of yajna, sacrifice; tapahsu — in undergoing different types of austerities; ca — also; danesu — in giving charities; yat — that which; pradistam — indicated; atyeti — surpasses; tat sarvam — all those; idam — this; viditva — knowing; yogi — the devotee; param — supreme; sthanam — abode; upaiti — achieves; ca — also; adyam — original.
idam — this; tu — but; te — unto you; guhya-tamam — the most confidential; pravaksyami — I am speaking; anasuyave — to the nonenvious; jnanam — knowledge; vijnana — realized knowledge; sahitam — with; yat — which; jnatva — knowing; moksyase — you will be released; asubhat — from this miserable material existence.
raja-vidya — the king of education; raja-guhyam — the king of confidential knowledge; pavitram — the purest; idam — this; uttamam — transcendental; pratyaksa — by direct experience; avagamam — understood; dharmyam — the principle of religion; su-sukham — very happy; kartum — to execute;
asraddadhanah — those who are faithless; purusah — such persons; dharmasya — toward the process of religion; asya — this; param-tapa — O killer of the enemies; aprapya — without obtaining; mam — Me; nivartante — come back; mrtyu — of death; samsara — in material existence; vartmani — on the path.
maya — by Me; tatam — pervaded; idam — this; sarvam — all; jagat — cosmic manifestation; avyakta-murtina — by the unmanifested form; mat-sthani — in Me; sarva-bhutani — all living entities; na — not; ca — also; aham — I; tesu — in them; avasthitah — situated.
na — never; ca — also; mat-sthani — situated in Me; bhutani — all creation; pasya — just see; me — My; yogam aisvaram — inconceivable mystic power; bhuta-bhrt — the maintainer of all living entities; na — never; ca — also; bhuta-sthah — in the cosmic manifestation; mama — My; atma — Self; bhuta-bhavanah — the source of all manifestations.
yatha — just as; akasa-sthitah — situated in the sky; nityam — always; vayuh — the wind; sarvatra-gah — blowing everywhere; mahan — great; tatha — similarly; sarvani bhutani — all created beings; mat-sthani — situated in Me; upadharaya — try to understand.
sarva-bhutani — all created entities; kaunteya — O son of Kunti; prakrtim — nature; yanti — enter; mamikam — My; kalpa-ksaye — at the end of the millennium; punah — again; tani — all those; kalpa-adau — in the beginning of the millennium; visrjami — create; aham — I.
prakrtim — the material nature; svam — of My personal Self; avastabhya — entering into; visrjami — I create; punah punah — again and again; bhuta-gramam — all the cosmic manifestations; imam — these; krtsnam — in total; avasam — automatically; prakrteh — of the force of nature; vasat — under obligation.
na — never; ca — also; mam — Me; tani — all those; karmani — activities; nibadhnanti — bind; dhanam-jaya — O conqueror of riches; udasina-vat — as neutral; asinam — situated; asaktam — without attraction; tesu — for those; karmasu — activities.
maya — by Me; adhyaksena — by superintendence; prakrtih — material nature; suyate — manifests; sa — both; cara-acaram — the moving and the nonmoving;
anena — this; kaunteya — O son of Kunti; jagat — the cosmic manifestation; viparivartate — is working.
avajananti — deride; mam — Me; mudhah — foolish men; manusim — in a human form; tanum — a body; asritam — assuming; param — transcendental; bhavam — nature; ajanantah — not knowing; mama — My; bhuta — of everything that be; maha-isvaram — the supreme proprietor.
mogha-asah — baffled in their hopes; mogha-karmanah — baffled in fruitive activities; mogha-jnanah — baffled in knowledge; vicetasah — bewildered; raksasim — demonic; asurim — atheistic; ca — and; prakrtim — nature; mohinim — bewildering; sritah — taking shelter of.
maha-atmanah — the great souls; tu — but; mam — unto Me; partha — O son of Prtha; daivim — divine; prakrtim — nature; asritah — having taken shelter of; bhajanti — render service; ananya-manasah — without deviation of the mind; jnatva — knowing; bhuta — of creation; adim — the origin;
satatam — always; kirtayantah — chanting; mam — about Me; yatantah — fully endeavoring; ca — also; drdha-vratah — with determination; namasyantah — offering obeisances; ca — and; mam — Me; bhaktya — in devotion; nitya-yuktah — perpetually engaged; upasate — worship.
jnana-yajnena — by cultivation of knowledge; ca — also; api — certainly; anye — others; yajantah — sacrificing; mam — Me; upasate — worship; ekatvena — in oneness; prthaktvena — in duality; bahudha — in diversity; visvatah-mukham — and in the universal form.
aham — I; kratuh — Vedic ritual; aham — I; yajnah — smrti sacrifice;

svadha — oblation;
svadhā स्वधा [स्वद्-आ-पृषो˚ दस्य धः] 1 One’s own nature or determination, spontaneity. -2 One’s own will or pleasure. -3 The oblation of food offered to the Pitṛis or Manes of deceased ancestors; स्वधासंग्रहतत्पराः R.1.66; Ms.9.142; Y.1.12. -4 The food offered to the Manes personified. -5 Food or oblation in general. -6 One’s own portion or share. -7 A Śrāddha or funeral ceremony; Ms.2.142. -8 N. of Māyā or illusion. ind. An exclamation uttered on offering an oblation to the Manes (with dat.); पितृभ्यः स्वधा Sk. -Comp. -कर a. offering oblations to the Pitṛis; यदपत्यं भवेदस्यां तन्मम स्यात् स्वधाकरम् Ms.9.127. -कारः the exclamation Svadhā; पूतं हि तद्गृहं यत्र स्वधाकारः प्रवर्तते. -निनयनम् a formula or sacred text used in making the oblations to the Pitṛis; नाभिव्याहारयेद्ब्रह्म स्वधानिनयनादृते Ms.2.172. -प्रियः 1 Agni or fire; -2 black sesamum. -भुज् m. 1 a deceased or defied ancestor. -2 a god, deity.

aham — I; aham — I; ausadham — healing herb; mantrah — transcendental chant; aham — I; aham — I; ajyam — melted butter; aham — I; agnih — fire; aham — I; hutam — offering.
pita — father; aham — I; asya — of this; jagatah — universe; mata — mother; dhata — supporter; pitamahah — grandfather; vedyam — what is to be known; pavitram — that which purifies; om-kara — the syllable om; rk — the Rg Veda; sama — the Sama Veda; yajuh — the Yajur Veda; ca — and.
gatih — goal; bharta — sustainer; prabhuh — Lord; saksi — witness; nivasah — abode; saranam — refuge; su-hrt — most intimate friend; prabhavah — creation; pralayah — dissolution; sthanam — ground; nidhanam — resting place; bijam — seed;
tapami — give heat; aham — I; aham — I; varsam — rain; nigrhnami — withhold; utsrjami — send forth; ca — and; ca — and; mrtyuh — death; ca — and; sat — spirit; asat — matter; ca — and; aham — I; arjuna — O Arjuna.
trai-vidyah — the knowers of the three Vedas; mam — Me;
soma-pah — drinkers of soma juice; soma-rasa

puta — purified; papah — of sins; yajnaih — with sacrifices; istva — worshiping; svah-gatim — passage to heaven; prarthayante — pray for; te — they; asadya — attaining; sura-indra — of Indra; lokam — the world; asnanti — enjoy; divyan — celestial; divi — in heaven; deva-bhogan — the pleasures of the gods.
te — they; tam — that; bhuktva — having enjoyed; svarga-lokam — heaven; visalam — vast; ksine — being exhausted; punye — the results of their pious activities; martya-lokam — to the mortal earth; visanti — fall down; evam — thus; trayi — of the three Vedas; dharmam — doctrines; anuprapannah — following; gata-agatam — death and birth; kama-kamah — desiring sense enjoyments; labhante — attain.
ananyah — having no other object; cintayantah — concentrating; mam — on Me; ye — those who; janah — persons; paryupasate — properly worship; tesam — of them; abhiyuktanam — fixed in devotion; yoga — requirements; ksemam — protection; vahami — carry; aham — I.
ye — those who; api — also; anya — of other; devata — gods; bhaktah — devotees; yajante — worship; sraddhaya anvitah — with faith; te — they; api — also; mam — Me; eva — only; kaunteya — O son of Kunti; yajanti — they worship; avidhi-purvakam — in a wrong way.
aham — I; hi — surely; sarva — of all; yajnanam — sacrifices; bhokta — the enjoyer; ca — and; prabhuh — the Lord; eva — also; ca — and; na — not; tu — but; mam — Me; abhijananti — they know; tattvena — in reality; cyavanti — fall down; te — they.
yanti — go; deva-vratah — worshipers of demigods; devan — to the demigods; pitrn — to the ancestors; yanti — go; pitr-vratah — worshipers of ancestors; bhutani — to the ghosts and spirits; yanti — go; bhuta-ijyah — worshipers of ghosts and spirits; yanti — go; mat — My; yajinah — devotees; api — but; mam — unto Me.
patram — a leaf; puspam — a flower; phalam — a fruit; toyam — water; yah — whoever; me — unto Me; bhaktya — with devotion; prayacchati — offers; tat — that; aham — I; bhakti-upahrtam — offered in devotion; asnami — accept;
prayata-atmanah (prayatatmanah) — from one in pure consciousness.
yat — whatever; karosi — you do; yat — whatever; asnasi — you eat; yat — whatever; juhosi — you offer; dadasi — you give away; yat — whatever; yat — whatever; tapasyasi — austerities you perform; kaunteya — O son of Kunti; tat — that; kurusva — do; mat — unto Me; arpanam — as an offering.
asubha — and inauspicious; phalaih — results; evam — thus; moksyase — you will become free; karma — of work; bandhanaih — from the bondage; sannyasa — of renunciation; yoga — the yoga; yukta-atma — having the mind firmly set on; vimuktah — liberated; mam — to Me; upaisyasi — you will attain.
samah — equally disposed; aham — I; sarva-bhutesu — to all living entities; na — no one; me — to Me; dvesyah — hateful; asti — is; na — nor; priyah — dear; ye — those who; bhajanti — render transcendental service; tu — but; mam — unto Me; bhaktya — in devotion; mayi — are in Me; te — such persons; tesu — in them; ca — also; api — certainly; aham — I.
api — even; cet — if; su-duracarah — one committing the most abominable actions; bhajate — is engaged in devotional service; mam — unto Me; ananya-bhak — without deviation; sadhuh — a saint; sah — he; mantavyah — is to be considered; samyak — completely; vyavasitah — situated in determination; hi — certainly; sah — he.
ksipram — very soon; bhavati — becomes; dharma-atma — righteous; sasvat-santim — lasting peace; nigacchati — attains; kaunteya — O son of Kunti; pratijanihi — declare; na — never; me — My; bhaktah — devotee; pranasyati — perishes.
mam — of Me; hi — certainly; partha — O son of Prtha; vyapasritya — particularly taking shelter; ye — those who; api — also; syuh — are; papa-yonayah — born of a lower family; striyah — women; vaisyah — mercantile people; tatha — also; sudrah — lower-class men; te api — even they; yanti — go; param — to the supreme; gatim — destination.
kim — how much; punah — again; brahmanah — brahmanas; bhaktah — devotees; raja-rsayah — saintly kings; tatha — also; anityam — temporary; asukham — full of miseries; lokam — planet; imam — this; prapya — gaining; bhajasva — be engaged in loving service; mam — unto Me.
mat-manah — always thinking of Me; bhava — become; mat — My; bhaktah — devotee; mat — My; yaji — worshiper; mam — unto Me; namas-kuru — offer obeisances; mam — unto Me; eva — completely; esyasi — you will come; yuktva — being absorbed; evam — thus; atmanam — your soul; mat-parayanah — devoted to Me.
bhuyah — again; maha-baho — O mighty-armed; srnu — just hear; me — My; paramam — supreme; vacah — instruction; yat — that which; te — to you; aham — I; priyamanaya — thinking you dear to Me; vaksyami — say; hita-kamyaya — for your benefit.
na — never; me — My; viduh — know; sura-ganah — the demigods; prabhavam — origin, opulences; na — never; maha-rsayah — great sages; adih — the origin; hi — certainly; devanam — of the demigods; maha-rsinam — of the great sages; ca — also; sarvasah — in all respects.
yah — anyone who; mam — Me; ajam — unborn; anadim — without beginning; ca — also; vetti — knows; loka — of the planets; maha-isvaram — the supreme master; asammudhah — undeluded; sah — he; martyesu — among those subject to death; sarva-papaih — from all sinful reactions; pramucyate — is delivered.
buddhih — intelligence; jnanam — knowledge; asammohah — freedom from doubt; ksama — forgiveness; satyam — truthfulness; damah — control of the senses; samah — control of the mind; sukham — happiness; duhkham — distress; bhavah — birth; abhavah — death; bhayam — fear; ca — also; abhayam — fearlessness; eva — also; ca — and; ahimsa — nonviolence; samata — equilibrium; tustih — satisfaction; tapah — penance; danam — charity; yasah — fame; ayasah — infamy; bhavanti — come about; bhavah — natures; bhutanam — of living entities; mattah — from Me; prthak-vidhah — variously arranged.
maha-rsayah — the great sages; sapta — seven; purve — before; catvarah — four; manavah — Manus; tatha — also; mat-bhavah — born of Me; manasah — from the mind; jatah — born; yesam — of them; loke — in the world; imah — all this; prajah — population.
etam — all this; vibhutim — opulence; yogam — mystic power; ca — also; mama — of Mine; yah — anyone who; vetti — knows; tattvatah — factually; sah — he; avikalpena — without division; yogena — in devotional service; yujyate — is engaged; na — never; atra — here;
aham — I; sarvasya — of all; prabhavah — the source of generation; mattah — from Me; sarvam — everything;
pravartate — emanates;
matva — knowing; bhajante — become devoted; mam — unto Me; budhah — the learned; bhava-samanvitah — with great attention.
mat-cittah — their minds fully engaged in Me; mat-gata-pranah — their lives devoted to Me; bodhayantah — preaching; parasparam — among themselves; kathayantah — talking; ca — also; mam — about Me; nityam — perpetually; tusyanti — become pleased; ca — also; ramanti — enjoy transcendental bliss; ca — also.
tesam — unto them; satata-yuktanam — always engaged; bhajatam — in rendering devotional service; priti-purvakam — in loving ecstasy; dadami — I give; buddhi-yogam — real intelligence; tam — that; yena — by which; mam — unto Me; upayanti — come; te — they.
tesam — for them; anukampa-artham — to show special mercy; aham — I; ajnana-jam — due to ignorance; tamah — darkness; nasayami — dispel; atma-bhava — within their hearts; sthah — situated; jnana — of knowledge; dipena — with the lamp; bhasvata — glowing.
arjunah uvaca — Arjuna said; param — supreme; brahma — truth; param — supreme; dhama — sustenance; pavitram — pure; paramam — supreme; bhavan — You; purusam — personalitydivyam — transcendental; adi-devam — the original Lord; ajam — unborn; vibhum — greatest; ahuh — say; tvam — of You; rsayah — sages; sarve — all; deva-rsih — the sage among the demigods; naradah — Narada; tatha — also; asitah — Asita; devalah — Devala; vyasah — Vyasa; svayam — personally; ca — also; bravisi — You are explaining; me — unto me.
sarvam — all; etat — this; rtam — truth; manye — I accept; yat — which; mam — unto me; vadasi — You tell; na — never; hi — certainly; te — Your; vyaktim — revelation; viduh — can know; devah — the demigods; na — nor; danavah — the demons.
svayam — personally; atmana — by Yourself; atmanam — Yourself; vettha — know; tvam — You; purusa-uttama — O greatest of all persons; bhuta-bhavana — O origin of everything; bhuta-isa — O Lord of everything; deva-deva — O Lord of all demigods; jagat-pate — O Lord of the entire universe.
vaktum — to say; arhasi — You deserve; asesena — in detail; divyah — divine; hi — certainly; atma — Your own; vibhutayah — opulences; yabhih — by which; vibhutibhih — opulences; lokan — all the planets; iman — these; tvam — You; vyapya — pervading; tisthasi — remain.
katham — how; vidyam aham — shall I know; yogin — O supreme mystic; tvam — You; sada — always; paricintayan — thinking of; kesu — in which; kesu — in which; ca — also; bhavesu — natures; cintyah asi — You are to be remembered; maya — by me.
vistarena — in detail; atmanah — Your; yogam — mystic power; vibhutim — opulences; ca — also; jana-ardana — O killer of the atheists; bhuyah — again; kathaya — describe; trptih — satisfaction; hi — certainly; srnvatah — hearing; na asti — there is not; me — my; amrtam — nectar.
hanta — yes; te — unto you; kathayisyami — I shall speak; divyah — divine; hi — certainly; atma-vibhutayah — personal opulences; pradhanyatah — which are principal; kuru-srestha — O best of the Kurus; na asti — there is not; antah — limit; vistarasya — to the extent; me — My.
aham — I; atma — the soul; gudakesa — O Arjuna; sarva-bhuta — of all living entities; asaya-sthitah — situated within the heart; adih — the origin; ca — also; madhyam — middle; ca — also; bhutanam — of all living entities; antah — end; ca — and.
adityanam — of the Adityas; visnuh — the Supreme Lord; jyotisam — of all luminaries; ravih — the sun; amsuman — radiant; maricih — Marici; marutam — of the Maruts; asmi — I am; naksatranam — of the stars; sasi — the moon.
vedanam — of all the Vedas; sama-vedah — the Sama Veda; asmi — I am; devanam — of all the demigods; asmi — I am; vasavah — the heavenly king; indriyanam — of all the senses; manah — the mind; ca — also; asmi — I am; bhutanam — of all living entities; asmi — I am; cetana — the living force.
rudranam — of all the Rudras; sankarah — Lord Siva; ca — also; asmi — I am; vitta-isah — the lord of the treasury of the demigods; yaksa-raksasam — of the Yaksas and Raksasas; vasunam — of the Vasus; pavakah — fire; ca — also; asmi — I am; meruh — Meru; sikharinam — of all mountains; aham — I am.
purodhasam — of all priests; ca — also; mukhyam — the chief; mam — Me; viddhi — understand; partha — O son of Prtha; brhaspatim — Brhaspati; senaninam — of all commanders; skandah — Karttikeya; sarasam — of all reservoirs of water; asmi — I am; sagarah — the ocean.
maha-rsinam — among the great sages; bhrguh — Bhrgu; giram — of vibrations; asmi — I am; yajnanam — of sacrifices; japa-yajnah — chanting; asmi — I am; sthavaranam — of immovable things; himalayah — the Himalayan mountains.
asvatthah — the banyan tree; sarva-vrksanam — of all trees; deva-rsinam — of all the sages amongst the demigods; ca — and; naradah — Narada; gandharvanam — of the citizens of the Gandharva planet; citrarathah — Citraratha; siddhanam — of all those who are perfected; kapilah munih — Kapila Muni.
uccaihsravasam — Uccaihsrava; asvanam — among horses; viddhi — know; mam — Me; amrta-udbhavam — produced from the churning of the ocean; airavatam — Airavata; gaja-indranam — of lordly elephants; naranam — among human beings; nara-adhipam — the king.
ayudhanam — of all weapons;

the thunderbolt;
Rigveda, The weapon of Indra, the god of heaven and the chief deity of the Rigvedic pantheon, used to kill sinners and ignorant persons.
It’s Indra’s main weapon to kill demons.

dhenunam — of cows; asmi — I am; kama-dhuk — the surabhi cow; prajanah — the cause for begetting children; ca — and; asmi — I am; kandarpah — Cupid; sarpanam — of serpents; asmi — I am; vasukih — Vasuki.
asmi — I am; naganam — of the many-hooded serpents; varunah — the demigod controlling the water; yadasam — of all aquatics; pitrnam — of the ancestors; aryama — Aryama; ca — also; asmi — I am; yamah — the controller of death; samyamatam — of all regulators;
prahladah — Prahlada; daityanam — of the demons; kalah — time; kalayatam — of subduers; mrganam — of animals; ca — and; mrga-indrah — the lion; vainateyah — Garuda; paksinam — of birds.
pavanah — the wind; pavatam — of all that purifies; asmi — I am; ramah — Rama; sastra-bhrtam — of the carriers of weapons; jhasanam — of all fish;
makarah — the shark;
asmi — I am; srotasam — of flowing rivers; asmi — I am; jahnavi — the river Ganges.
sarganam — of all creations; adih — the beginning; antah — end; ca — and; madhyam — middle arjuna — O Arjuna;
adhyatma-vidya — spiritual knowledge;
vidyanam — of all education; vadah — the natural conclusion; pravadatam — of arguments; aham — I am.
aksaranam — of letters; a-karah — the first letter; asmi — I am; dvandvah — the dual; ca — and; aksayah — eternal; kalah — time; dhata — the creator; visvatah-mukhah — Brahma.

samasikasya — of compounds;

compound, In chemistry, a compound is a substance that consists of two or more elements. See more meanings in art.

mrtyuh — death; sarva-harah — all-devouring; ca — also; udbhavah — generation; ca — also; bhavisyatam — of future manifestations; kirtih — fame; srih — opulence or beauty; vak — fine speech; ca — also; narinam — of women; smrtih — memory; medha — intelligence; dhrtih — firmness; ksama — patience.
brhat-sama — the Brhat-sama; tatha — also; samnam — of the Sama Veda songs; masanam — of months; marga-sirsah — the month of November-December; rtunam — of all seasons; kusuma-akarah — spring.
chalayatam — of all cheats; asmi — I am; tejah — the splendor; tejasvinam — of everything splendid; jayah — victory; asmi — I am; vyavasayah — enterprise or adventure; asmi — I am; sattvam — the strength; sattva-vatam — of the strong; aham — I am.
vrsninam — of the descendants of Vrsni; vasudevah — Krsna in Dvaraka; asmi — I am; pandavanam — of the Pandavas; dhanam-jayah — Arjuna; muninam — of the sages; api — also; vyasah — Vyasa, the compiler of all Vedic literature;
dandah — punishment; damayatam — of all means of suppression; asmi — I am;

nitih — morality; नीति see art.
niti – daily निति

jigisatam — of those who seek victory; maunam — silence; ca — and; eva — also; asmi — I am; guhyanam — of secrets; jnanam — knowledge; jnana-vatam — of the wise; aham — I am.
yat — whatever; api — may be; sarva-bhutanam — of all creations; bijam — seed; tat — that; arjuna — O Arjuna; na — not; tat — that; asti — there is; vina — without; yat — which; syat — exists; maya — Me; bhutam — created being; cara-acaram — moving and nonmoving.
na — nor; antah — a limit; asti — there is; mama — My; divyanam — of the divine; vibhutinam — opulences; param-tapa — O conqueror of the enemies; esah — all this; tu — but; uddesatah — as examples; proktah — spoken; vibhuteh — of opulences; vistarah — the expanse; maya — by Me.
yat yat — whatever; vibhuti — opulences; mat — having; sattvam — existence; sri-mat — beautiful; urjitam — glorious; va — or; tat tat — all those; avagaccha — must know; tvam — you; mama — My; tejah — of the splendor; amsa — a part; sambhavam — born of.
bahuna — many; etena — by this kind; kim — what; jnatena — by knowing; tava — your; arjuna — O Arjuna; vistabhya — pervading; aham — I; idam — this; krtsnam — entire; eka — by one; amsena — part; sthitah — am situated; jagat — universe.
arjunah uvaca — Arjuna said; mat-anugrahaya — just to show me favor; paramam — supreme; guhyam — confidential subject; adhyatma — spiritual; samjnitam — in the matter of; yat — what; tvaya — by You; uktam — said; vacah — words; tena — by that; mohah — illusion; ayam — this; vigatah — is removed; mama — my.
bhava — appearance; apyayau — disappearance; hi — certainly; bhutanam — of all living entities; srutau — have been heard; vistarasah — in detail; maya — by me; tvattah — from You; kamala-patra-aksa — O lotus-eyed one; mahatmyam — glories; api — also; ca — and;
evam — thus; etat — this; yatha — as it is; attha — have spoken; tvam — You; atmanam — Yourself; parama-isvara — O Supreme Lord; drastum — to see; icchami — I wish; te — Your; rupam — form; aisvaram — divine; purusa-uttama — O best of personalities.
manyase — You think; yadi — if; tat — that; sakyam — is able; maya — by me; drastum — to be seen; prabho — O Lord; yoga-isvara — O Lord of all mystic power; tatah — then; me — unto me; tvam — You; darsaya — show; atmanam — Your Self;
pasya — just see; me — My; partha — O son of Prtha; rupani — forms; satasah — hundreds; sahasrasah — thousands; nana-vidhani — variegated; divyani — divine; nana — variegated; varna — colors; akrtini — forms; ca — also.
pasya — see;

aditya — the twelve sons of Aditi;

vasu, rich
— the eight Vasus;

asvinau — the two Asvinis; marutah — the forty-nine Maruts (demigods of the wind); tatha — also; bahuni — many; adrsta — that you have not seen; purvani — before; pasya — see; ascaryani — all the wonders; bharata — O best of the Bharatas.
iha — in this; eka-stham — in one place; jagat — the universe; krtsnam — completely; pasya — see; adya — immediately; sa — with; cara — the moving; acaram — and not moving; mama — My; dehe — in this body; gudakesa — O Arjuna; yat — that which; ca — also; anyat — other; drastum — to see; icchasi — you wish.
na — never; tu — but; mam — Me; sakyase — are able; drastum — to see; anena — with these; sva-caksusa — your own eyes; divyam — divine; dadami — I give; te — to you; caksuh — eyes; pasya — see; me — My; yogam aisvaram — inconceivable mystic power.
sanjayah uvaca — Sanjaya said; evam — thus; uktva — saying; tatah — thereafter; rajan — O King; maha-yoga-isvarah — the most powerful mystic; harih — the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna; darsayam asa — showed; parthaya — unto Arjuna; paramam — the divine; rupam aisvaram — universal form.
aneka — various; vaktra — mouths; nayanam — eyes; aneka — various; adbhuta — wonderful; darsanam — sights; aneka — many; divya — divine; abharanam — ornaments; divya — divine; aneka — various; udyata — uplifted; ayudham — weapons; divya — divine; malya — garlands; ambara — dresses; dharam — wearing; divya — divine; gandha — fragrances; anulepanam — smeared with; sarva — all; ascarya-mayam — wonderful; devam — shining; visvatah-mukham — all-pervading.
divi — in the sky; surya — of suns; sahasrasya — of many thousands; bhavet — there were; yugapat — simultaneously; utthita — present; yadi — if; bhah — light; sadrsi — like that; sa — that; syat — might be; bhasah — effulgence; tasya — of Him; maha-atmanah — the great Lord.
tatra — there; eka-stham — in one place; jagat — the universe; krtsnam — complete; pravibhaktam — divided; anekadha — into many; apasyat — could see; deva-devasya — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; sarire — in the universal form;
tatah — thereafter; sah — he; vismaya-avistah — being overwhelmed with wonder; hrsta-roma — with his bodily hairs standing on end due to his great ecstasy; dhanam-jayah — Arjuna; pranamya — offering obeisances; sirasa — with the head; devam — to the Supreme Personality of Godhead; krta-anjalih — with folded hands; abhasata — began to speak.
arjunah uvaca — Arjuna said; pasyami — I see; devan — all the demigods; tava — Your; deva — O Lord; dehe — in the body; sarvan — all; tatha — also; bhuta — living entities; visesa-sanghan — specifically assembled; brahmanam — Lord Brahma; isam — Lord Siva; kamala-asana-stham — sitting on the lotus flower; rsin — great sages; ca — also; sarvan — all; uragan — serpents; ca — also; divyan — divine.
aneka — many; bahu — arms; udara — bellies; vaktra — mouths; netram — eyes; pasyami — I see; tvam — You; sarvatah — on all sides; ananta-rupam — unlimited form; na antam — no end; na madhyam — no middle; na punah — nor again; tava — Your; adim — beginning; pasyami — I see; visva-isvara — O Lord of the universe; visva-rupa — in the form of the universe.
kiritinam — with helmets; gadinam — with maces; cakrinam — with discs; ca — and; tejah-rasim — effulgence; sarvatah — on all sides; dipti-mantam — glowing; pasyami — I see; tvam — You; durniriksyam — difficult to see; samantat — everywhere; dipta-anala — blazing fire; arka — of the sun;
dyutim — the sunshine;

aprameyam — immeasurable.
tvam — You; aksaram — the infallible; paramam — supreme; veditavyam — to be understood; tvam — You; asya — of this; visvasya — universe; param — supreme; nidhanam — basis; tvam — You; sasvata-dharma-gopta — maintainer of the eternal religion; sanatanah — eternal; tvam — You; purusah — the Supreme Personality; matah me — this is my opinion.
anadi — without beginning; madhya — middle; antam — or end; viryam — glories; bahum — arms; sasi — the moon; surya — and sun; netram — eyes; pasyami — I see; tvam — You; dipta — blazing; hutasa-vaktram — fire coming out of Your mouth; sva-tejasa — by Your radiance; visvam — universe; idam — this; tapantam — heating.
dyau — from outer space; a-prthivyoh — to the earth; idam — this; antaram — between; hi — certainly; vyaptam — pervaded; tvaya — by You; ekena — alone; disah — directions; ca — and; sarvah — all; drstva — by seeing; adbhutam — wonderful; rupam — form; ugram — terrible; tava — Your; idam — this; loka — the planetary systems; trayam — three; pravyathitam — perturbed; maha-atman — O great one.
ami — all those; hi — certainly; tvam — You; sura-sanghah — groups of demigods; visanti — are entering; kecit — some of them; bhitah — out of fear; pranjalayah — with folded hands; grnanti — are offering prayers; uktva — speaking; maha-rsi — great sages; siddha-sanghah — perfect beings; stuvanti — are singing hymns; tvam — unto You; stutibhih — with prayers; puskalabhih — Vedic hymns.
rudra — manifestations of Lord Siva; adityah — the Adityas; vasavah — the Vasus; ye — all those; ca — and; sadhyah — the Sadhyas; visve — the Visvedevas; asvinau — the Asvini-kumaras; marutah — the Maruts; ca — and; usma-pah — the forefathers; ca — and; gandharva — of the Gandharvas; yaksa — the Yaksas; asura — the demons; siddha — and the perfected demigods; sanghah — the assemblies; viksante — are beholding; tvam — You; vismitah — in wonder; ca — also; sarve — all.
rupam — the form; mahat — very great; te — of You; bahu — many; vaktra — faces; netram — and eyes; maha-baho — O mighty-armed one; bahu — many; bahu — arms; uru — thighs;; bahu-udaram — many bellies; bahu-damstra — many teeth; karalam — horrible; drstva — seeing; lokah — all the planets; pravyathitah — perturbed; tatha — similarly; aham — I.
nabhah-sprsam — touching the sky; diptam — glowing; aneka — many; varnam — colors; vyatta — open; ananam — mouths; dipta — glowing; visala — very great; netram — eyes; drstva — seeing; hi — certainly; tvam — You; pravyathita — perturbed; antah — within; atma — soul; dhrtim — steadiness; na — not; vindami — I have; samam — mental tranquillity; ca — also; visno — O Lord Visnu.
damstra — teeth; karalani — terrible; ca — also; te — Your; mukhani — faces; drstva — seeing; eva — thus; kala-anala — the fire of death; sannibhani — as if; disah — the directions; na — not; jane — I know; na — not; labhe — I obtain; ca — and; sarma — grace; prasida — be pleased; deva-isa — O Lord of all lords; jagat-nivasa — O refuge of the worlds.
ami — these; ca — also; tvam — You; dhrtarastrasya — of Dhrtarastra; putrah — the sons; sarve — all; saha — with; eva — indeed; avani-pala — of warrior kings; sanghaih — the groups; bhismah — Bhismadeva; suta-putrah — Karna; tatha — also; asau — that; saha — with; asmadiyaih — our; api — also; yodha-mukhyaih — chiefs among the warriors; vaktrani — mouths; te — Your; tvaramanah — rushing; visanti — are entering; damstra — teeth; karalani — terrible; bhayanakani — very fearful; kecit — some of them; vilagnah — becoming attached; dasana-antaresu — between the teeth; sandrsyante — are seen; curnitaih — with smashed; uttama-angaih — heads.
yatha — as; nadinam — of the rivers; bahavah — the many; ambu-vegah — waves of the waters; samudram — the ocean; abhimukhah — towards; dravanti — glide; tatha — similarly; tava — Your; ami — all these; nara-loka-virah — kings of human society; visanti — are entering; vaktrani — the mouths; abhivijvalanti — and are blazing.
yatha — as; pradiptam — blazing; jvalanam — a fire; patangah — moths; visanti — enter; nasaya — for destruction; samrddha — with full; vegah — speed; tatha eva — similarly; nasaya — for destruction; visanti — are entering; lokah — all people; tava — Your; api — also; vaktrani — mouths; samrddha-vegah — with full speed.
lelihyase — You are licking; grasamanah — devouring; samantat — from all directions; lokan — people; samagran — all; vadanaih — by the mouths; jvaladbhih — blazing; tejobhih — by effulgence; apurya — covering; jagat — the universe; samagram — all; bhasah — rays; tava — Your; ugrah — terrible; pratapanti — are scorching; visno — O all-pervading Lord.
akhyahi — please explain; me — unto me; kah — who; bhavan — You; ugra-rupah — fierce form; namah astu — obeisances; te — unto You; deva-vara — O great one amongst the demigods; prasida — be gracious; vijnatum — to know; icchami — I wish; bhavantam — You; adyam — the original; na — not; hi — certainly; prajanami — do I know; tava — Your; pravrttim — mission.
kalah — time; asmi — I am; loka — of the worlds; ksaya-krt — the destroyer; pravrddhah — great; lokan — all people; samahartum — in destroying; iha — in this world; pravrttah — engaged; api — even; tvam — you; na — never; bhavisyanti — will be; sarve — all; ye — who; avasthitah — situated; prati-anikesu — on the opposite sides; yodhah — the soldiers.
tasmat — therefore; tvam — you; uttistha — get up; yasah — fame; labhasva — gain; jitva — conquering; satrun — enemies; bhunksva — enjoy; rajyam — kingdom; samrddham — flourishing; maya — by Me; ete — all these; nihatah — killed; purvam eva — by previous arrangement; nimitta-matram — just the cause; bhava — become; savya-sacin — O Savyasaci.
bhismam ca — also Bhisma; jayadratham ca — also Jayadratha; karnam — Karna; tatha — also; anyan — others; api — certainly; yodha-viran — great warriors; maya — by Me; hatan — already killed; tvam — you; jahi — destroy; ma — do not; vyathisthah — be disturbed; yudhyasva — just fight; jeta asi — you will conquer; rane — in the fight; sapatnan — enemies.
sanjayah uvaca — Sanjaya said; etat — thus; srutva — hearing; vacanam — the speech; kesavasya — of Krsna; krta-anjalih — with folded hands; vepamanah — trembling; kiriti — Arjuna; namaskrtva — offering obeisances; bhuyah — again; eva — also; aha — said; krsnam — unto Krsna; sa-gadgadam — with a faltering voice; bhita-bhitah — fearful; pranamya — offering obeisances.
arjunah uvaca — Arjuna said; sthane — rightly; hrsika-isa — O master of all senses; tava — Your; prakirtya — by the glories; jagat — the entire world; prahrsyati — is rejoicing; anurajyate — is becoming attached; ca — and; raksamsi — the demons; bhitani — out of fear; disah — in all directions; dravanti — are fleeing; sarve — all; namasyanti — are offering respects; ca — also; siddha-sanghah — the perfect human beings.
kasmat — why; ca — also; te — unto You; na — not; nameran — they should offer proper obeisances; maha-atman — O great one; gariyase — who are better; brahmanah — than Brahma; api — although; adi-kartre — to the supreme creator; deva-isa — O God of the gods; jagat-nivasa — O refuge of the universe; tvam — You are; aksaram — imperishable; sat-asat — to cause and effect; tat param — transcendental; yat — because.
tvam — You; adi-devah — the original Supreme God; purusah — personality; puranah — old; tvam — You; asya — of this; visvasya — universe; param — transcendental; nidhanam — refuge; vetta — the knower; asi — You are; vedyam — the knowable; ca — and; param — transcendental; ca — and; dhama — refuge; tvaya — by You; tatam — pervaded; visvam — the universe; ananta-rupa — O unlimited form.
vayuh — air; yamah — the controller; agnih — fire; varunah — water; sasa-ankah — the moon; prajapatih — Brahma; tvam — You; prapitamahah — the great-grandfather; ca — also; namah — my respects; namah — again my respects; te — unto You; astu — let there be; sahasra-krtvah — a thousand times; punah ca — and again; bhuyah — again; api — also; namah — offering my respects; namah te — offering my respects unto You.
namah — offering obeisances; purastat — from the front; prsthatah — from behind; te — unto You; namah astu — I offer my respects; te — unto You; sarvatah — from all sides; eva — indeed; sarva — because You are everything; ananta-virya — unlimited potency; amita-vikramah — and unlimited force; tvam — You; sarvam — everything; samapnosi — You cover; tasi — You are; sarvah — everything.
sakha — friend; matva — thinking; prasabham — presumptuously; yat — whatever; uktam — said; he krsna — O Krsna; he yadava — O Yadava; he sakhe — O my dear friend; ajanata — without knowing; mahimanam — glories; tava — Your; idam — this; maya — by me; pramadat — out of foolishness; pranayena — out of love; va api — either; yat — whatever; ca — also; avahasa-artham — for joking; asat-krtah — dishonored; asi — You have been; vihara — in relaxation; sayya — in lying down; asana — in sitting; bhojanesu — or while eating together; ekah — alone; api — also; acyuta — O infallible one; tat-samaksam — among companions; tat — all those; ksamaye — ask forgiveness; tvam — from You; aham — I; aprameyam — immeasurable.
pita — the father; asi — You are; lokasya — of all the world; cara — moving; acarasya — and nonmoving; tvam — You are; asya — of this; pujyah — worshipable; ca — also; guruh — master; gariyan — glorious; na — never; tvat-samah — equal to You; asti — there is; abhyadhikah — greater; kutah — how is it possible; anyah — other; loka-traye — in the three planetary systems; api — also; apratima-prabhava — O immeasurable power.
tasmat — therefore; pranamya — offering obeisances; pranidhaya — laying down; kayam — the body; prasadaye — to beg mercy; tvam — unto You; aham — I; isam — unto the Supreme Lord; idyam — worshipable; pita iva — like a father; putrasya — with a son; sakha iva — like a friend; sakhyuh — with a friend; priyah — a lover; priyayah — with the dearmost; arhasi — You should; deva — my Lord; sodhum — tolerate.
adrsta-purvam — never seen before; hrsitah — gladdened; asmi — I am; drstva — by seeing; bhayena — out of fear; ca — also; pravyathitam — perturbed; manah — mind; me — my; tat — that; me — unto me; darsaya — show; deva — O Lord; rupam — the form; prasida — just be gracious; deva-isa — O Lord of lords; jagat-nivasa — O refuge of the universe.
kiritinam — with helmet; gadinam — with club; cakra-hastam — disc in hand; icchami — I wish; tvam — You; drastum — to see; aham — I; tatha eva — in that position; tena eva — in that; rupena — form; catuh-bhujena — four-handed; sahasra-baho — O thousand-handed one; bhava — just become; visva-murte — O universal form.
maya — by Me; prasannena — happily; tava — unto you; arjuna — O Arjuna; idam — this; rupam — form; param — transcendental; darsitam — shown; atma-yogat — by My internal potency; tejah-mayam — full of effulgence; visvam — the entire universe; adyam — original; yat — that which; me — My; tvat anyena — besides you; na drsta-purvam — no one has previously seen.
na — never; veda-yajna — by sacrifice; adhyayanaih — or Vedic study; na — never; danaih — by charity; na — never; ca — also; kriyabhih — by pious activities; na — never; tapobhih — by serious penances; ugraih — severe; evam-rupah — in this form; sakyah — can; aham — I; nr-loke — in this material world; drastum — be seen; tvat — than you; anyena — by another; kuru-pravira — O best among the Kuru warriors.
ma — let it not be; te — unto you; vyatha — trouble; ma — let it not be; ca — also; vimudha-bhavah — bewilderment; drstva — by seeing; rupam — form; ghoram — horrible; idrk — as it is; mama — My; idam — this; vyapeta-bhih — free from all fear; prita-manah — pleased in mind; punah — again; tvam — you; tat — that; eva — thus; me — My; rupam — form; idam — this; prapasya — just see.
sanjayah uvaca — Sanjaya said; arjunam — unto Arjuna; vasudevah — Krsna; tatha — in that way; uktva — speaking; svakam — His own; rupam — form; darsayam asa — showed; bhuyah — again; asvasayam asa — encouraged; ca — also; bhitam — fearful; enam — him; bhutva — becoming; punah — again; saumya-vapuh — the beautiful form; maha-atma — the great one.
arjunah uvaca — Arjuna said; drstva — seeing; idam — this; manusam — human; rupam — form; tava — Your; saumyam — very beautiful; janardana — O chastiser of the enemies; idanim — now; asmi — I am; samvrttah — settled; sa-cetah — in my consciousness; prakrtim — to my own nature; gatah — returned.
su-durdarsam — very difficult to see; idam — this; rupam — form; drstavan asi — as you have seen; yat — which; mama — of Mine; devah — the demigods; api — also; asya — this; rupasya — form; nityam — eternally; darsana-kanksinah — aspiring to see.
na — never; aham — I; vedaih — by study of the Vedas; na — never; tapasa — by serious penances; na — never; danena — by charity; na — never; ca — also; ijyaya — by worship; sakyah — it is possible; evam-vidhah — like this; drastum — to see; drstavan — seeing; asi — you are; mam — Me; yatha — as.
bhaktya — by devotional service; tu — but; ananyaya — without being mixed with fruitive activities or speculative knowledge; sakyah — possible; aham — I; evam-vidhah — like this; arjuna — O Arjuna; jnatum — to know; drastum — to see; ca — and; tattvena — in fact; pravestum — to enter into; ca — also; param-tapa — O subduer of the enemy.
mat-karma-krt — engaged in doing My work; mat-paramah — considering Me the Supreme; mat-bhaktah — engaged in My devotional service; sanga-varjitah — freed from the contamination of fruitive activities and mental speculation; nirvairah — without an enemy; sarva-bhutesu — among all living entities; yah — one who; sah — he; mam — unto Me; eti — comes; pandava — O son of Pandu.
arjunah uvaca — Arjuna said; evam — thus; satata — always; yuktah — engaged; ye — those who; bhaktah — devotees; tvam — You; paryupasate — properly worship; ye — those who; ca — also; api — again; aksaram — beyond the senses; avyaktam — the unmanifested; tesam — of them; ke — who; yoga-vit-tamah — the most perfect in knowledge of yoga.
mayi — upon Me; avesya — fixing; manah — the mind; ye — those who; mam — Me; yuktah — engaged; upasate — worship; sraddhaya — with faith; paraya — transcendental; upetah — endowed; te — they; me — by Me; yukta-tamah — most perfect in yoga; matah — are considered.
ye — those who; tu — but; aksaram — that which is beyond the perception of the senses; anirdesyam — indefinite; avyaktam — unmanifested; paryupasate — completely engage in worshiping; sarvatra-gam — all-pervading; acintyam — inconceivable; ca — also; kuta-stham — unchanging; acalam — immovable; dhruvam — fixed; sanniyamya — controlling; indriya-gramam — all the senses; sarvatra — everywhere; sama-buddhayah — equally disposed; te — they; prapnuvanti — achieve; mam — Me; sarva-bhuta-hite — for the welfare of all living entities; ratah — engaged.
klesah — trouble; adhika-tarah — very much; tesam — of them; avyakta — to the unmanifested; asakta — attached; cetasam — of those whose minds; avyakta — toward the unmanifested; hi — certainly; gatih — progress; duhkham — with trouble; deha-vadbhih — by the embodied; avapyate — is achieved.
ye — those who; tu — but; sarvani — all; karmani — activities; mayi — unto Me; sannyasya — giving up; mat-parah — being attached to Me; ananyena — without division; yogena — by practice of such bhakti-yoga; mam — upon Me; dhyayantah — meditating; upasate — worship; tesam — of them; aham — I; samuddharta — the deliverer; mrtyu — of death; samsara — in material existence; sagarat — from the ocean; bhavami — I become; na — not; cirat — after a long time; partha — O son of Prtha; mayi — upon Me; avesita — fixed; cetasam — of those whose minds.
mayi — upon Me; manah — mind; adhatsva — fix; mayi — upon Me; buddhim — intelligence; nivesaya — apply; nivasisyasi — you will live; mayi — in Me; na — never;
cittam — mind; samadhatum — to fix; na — not; saknosi — you are able; mayi — upon Me; sthiram — steadily; abhyasa-yogena — by the practice of devotional service; tatah — then; mam — Me; iccha — desire; aptum — to get; dhanam-jaya — O winner of wealth, Arjuna.
abhyase — in practice; api — even if; asamarthah — unable; asi — you are; mat-karma — My work; paramah — dedicated to; bhava — become; mat-artham — for My sake; api — even; karmani — work; kurvan — performing; siddhim — perfection; avapsyasi — you will achieve.
etat — this; api — also; asaktah — unable; asi — you are; kartum — to perform; mat — unto Me; yogam — in devotional service; asritah — taking refuge; sarva-karma — of all activities; phala — of the results; tyagam — renunciation; tatah — then; kuru — do; yata-atma-van — self-situated.
sreyah — better; hi — certainly; jnanam — knowledge; abhyasat — than practice; jnanat — than knowledge; dhyanam — meditation; visisyate — is considered better; dhyanat — than meditation; karma-phala-tyagah — renunciation of the results of fruitive action; tyagat — by such renunciation; santih — peace; anantaram — thereafter.
advesta — nonenvious; sarva-bhutanam — toward all living entities; maitrah — friendly; karunah — kindly; ca — also; nirmamah — with no sense of proprietorship; nirahankarah — without false ego; sama — equal; duhkha — in distress; sukhah — and happiness; ksami — forgiving; santustah — satisfied; satatam — always; yogi — one engaged in devotion; yata-atma — self-controlled; drdha-niscayah — with determination; mayi — upon Me; arpita — engaged; manah — mind; buddhih — and intelligence; yah — one who; mat-bhaktah — My devotee; sah — he; me — to Me; priyah — dear.
yasmat — from whom; na — never; udvijate — are agitated; lokah — people; lokat — from people; na — never; udvijate — is disturbed; ca — also; yah — anyone who; harsa — from happiness; amarsa — distress; bhaya — fear; udvegaih — and anxiety; muktah — freed; yah — who; sah — anyone; ca — also; me — to Me; priyah — very dear.
anapeksah — neutral; daksah — expert; udasinah — free from care; gata-vyathah — freed from all distress; sarva-arambha — of all endeavors; parityagi — renouncer; yah — anyone who; mat-bhaktah — My devotee; sah — he; me — to Me; priyah — very dear.
yah — one who; na — never; hrsyati — takes pleasure; na — never; dvesti — grieves; na — never; socati — laments; na — never; kanksati — desires; asubha — and the inauspicious; parityagi — renouncer; bhakti-man — devotee; yah — one who; sah — he is; me — to Me; priyah — dear.
samah — equal; satrau — to an enemy; ca — also; mitre — to a friend; ca — also; tatha — so; mana — in honor; apamanayoh — and dishonor; sita — in cold; usna — heat; sukha — happiness; duhkhesu — and distress; samah — equipoised; sanga-vivarjitah — free from all association; tulya — equal; ninda — in defamation; stutih — and repute; mauni — silent; santustah — satisfied; yena kenacit — with anything; aniketah — having no residence; sthira — fixed; matih — determination; bhakti-man — engaged in devotion; me — to Me; priyah — dear; narah — a man.
ye — those who; tu — but; dharma — of religion; amrtam — nectar; idam — this; yatha — as; uktam — said; paryupasate — completely engage; sraddadhanah — with faith; mat-paramah — taking Me, the Supreme Lord, as everything; bhaktah — devotees; te — they; ativa — very, very; me — to Me; priyah — dear.
arjunah uvaca — Arjuna said; prakrtim — nature; purusam — the enjoyer; ca — also; ksetram — the field; ksetra-jnam — the knower of the field; ca — also; etat — all this; veditum — to understand; icchami — I wish; jnanam — knowledge; jneyam — the object of knowledge; ca — also; idam — this; sariram — body; kaunteya — O son of Kunti; ksetram — the field; abhidhiyate — is called; etat — this; yah — one who; vetti — knows; tam — he; prahuh — is called; ksetra-jnah — the knower of the field; tat-vidah — by those who know this.
ksetra-jnam — the knower of the field; ca — also; api — certainly; mam — Me; viddhi — know; sarva — all; ksetresu — in bodily fields; bharata — O son of Bharata; ksetra — the field of activities (the body); ksetra-jnayoh — and the knower of the field; jnanam — knowledge of; yat — that which; tat — that; jnanam — knowledge; matam — opinion; mama — My.
tat — that; ksetram — field of activities; yat — what; ca — also; yadrk — as it is; ca — also; yat — having what; vikari — changes; yatah — from which; ca — also; yat — what; sah — he; ca — also; yah — who; yat — having what; prabhavah — influence; ca — also; tat — that; samasena — in summary; me — from Me; srnu — understand.
rsibhih — by the wise sages; bahudha — in many ways; gitam — described; chandobhih — by Vedic hymns; vividhaih — various; prthak — variously; brahma-sutra — of the Vedanta; ca — also; hetu-madbhih — with cause and effect; viniscitaih — certain.
maha-bhutani — the great elements; buddhih — intelligence; avyaktam — the unmanifested; ca — also; indriyani — the senses; dasa-ekam — eleven; ca — also; panca — five; ca — also; indriya-go-carah — the objects of the senses; iccha — desire; dvesah — hatred; sukham — happiness; duhkham — distress; sanghatah — the aggregate; cetana — living symptoms; dhrtih — conviction; etat — all this; ksetram — the field of activities; samasena — in summary; sa-vikaram — with interactions; udahrtam — exemplified.
amanitvam — humility; adambhitvam — pridelessness; ahimsa — nonviolence; ksantih — tolerance; arjavam — simplicity; acarya-upasanam — approaching a bona fide spiritual master; saucam — cleanliness; sthairyam — steadfastness; atma-vinigrahah — self-control; indriya-arthesu — in the matter of the senses; vairagyam — renunciation; anahankarah — being without false egoism; ca — also; janma — of birth; mrtyu — death; jara — old age; vyadhi — and disease; duhkha — of the distress; dosa — the fault; anudarsanam — observing; asaktih — being without attachment; anabhisvangah — being without association; putra — for son; dara — wife; grha-adisu — home, etc; nityam — constant; ca — also; sama-cittatvam — equilibrium; ista — the desirable; anista — and undesirable; upapattisu — having obtained; mayi — unto Me; ca — also; ananya-yogena — by unalloyed devotional service; bhaktih — devotion; avyabhicarini — without any break; vivikta — to solitary; desa — places; sevitvam — aspiring; aratih — being without attachment; jana-samsadi — to people in general; adhyatma — pertaining to the self; jnana — in knowledge; nityatvam — constancy; tattva-jnana — of knowledge of the truth; artha — for the object; darsanam — philosophy; etat — all this; jnanam — knowledge; proktam — declared; ajnanam — ignorance; yat — that which; anyatha — other.
jneyam — the knowable; yat — which; tat — that; pravaksyami — I shall now explain; yat — which; jnatva — knowing; amrtam — nectar; asnute — one tastes; anadi — beginningless; mat-param — subordinate to Me; brahma — spirit; na — neither; sat — cause; tat — that; na — nor; asat — effect; ucyate — is said to be.
sarvatah — everywhere; pani — hands; tat — that; sarvatah — everywhere; aksi — eyes; sirah — heads; mukham — faces; sarvatah — everywhere; sruti-mat — having ears; loke — in the world; sarvam — everything; avrtya — covering; tisthati — exists.
sarva — of all; indriya — senses; guna — of the qualities; abhasam — the original source; sarva — all; indriya — senses; vivarjitam — being without; asaktam — without attachment; sarva-bhrt — the maintainer of everyone; ca — also; nirgunam — without material qualities; guna-bhoktr — master of the gunas; ca — also.
bahih — outside; antah — inside; bhutanam — of all living entities; acaram — not moving; caram — moving; eva — also; ca — and; suksmatvat — on account of being subtle; tat — that; avijneyam — unknowable; dura-stham — far away; ca — also; antike — near; ca — and; tat — that.
avibhaktam — without division; ca — also; bhutesu — in all living beings; vibhaktam — divided; iva — as if; ca — also; sthitam — situated; bhuta-bhartr — the maintainer of all living entities; ca — also; tat — that; jneyam — to be understood; grasisnu — devouring; prabhavisnu — developing; ca — also.
jyotisam — in all luminous objects; api — also; tat — that; jyotih — the source of light; tamasah — the darkness; param — beyond; ucyate — is said; jnanam — knowledge; jneyam — to be known; jnana-gamyam — to be approached by knowledge; hrdi — in the heart; sarvasya — of everyone; visthitam — situated.
ksetram — the field of activities (the body); tatha — also; jnanam — knowledge; jneyam — the knowable; ca — also; uktam — described; samasatah — in summary; mat-bhaktah — My devotee; etat — all this; vijnaya — after understanding; mat-bhavaya — to My nature; upapadyate — attains.
prakrtim — material nature; purusam — the living entities; ca — also; viddhi — you must know; anadi — without beginning; ubhau — both; api — also; ca — also; gunan — the three modes of nature; ca — also; viddhi — know; prakrti — material nature; sambhavan — produced of.
karya — of effect; karana — and cause; kartrtve — in the matter of creation; prakrtih — material nature; ucyate — is said to be; purusah — the living entity; sukha — of happiness; duhkhanam — and distress; bhoktrtve — in enjoyment;
ucyate — is said to be.
purusah — the living entity; prakrti-sthah — being situated in the material energy; hi — certainly; bhunkte — enjoys; prakrti-jan — produced by the material nature; gunan — the modes of nature; karanam — the cause; guna-sangah — the association with the modes of nature; asya — of the living entity; sat-asat — in good and bad; yoni — species of life; janmasu — in births.
upadrasta — overseer; anumanta — permitter; ca — also; bharta — master; bhokta — supreme enjoyer; maha-isvarah — the Supreme Lord; parama-atma — the Supersoul; iti — also; ca — and; api — indeed; uktah — is said; dehe — in the body; asmin — this; purusah — enjoyer; parah — transcendental.
yah — anyone who; evam — thus; vetti — understands; purusam — the living entity; prakrtim — material nature; ca — and; gunaih — the modes of material nature; saha — with; sarvatha — in all ways; vartamanah — being situated; api — in spite of; na — never; sah — he; bhuyah — again; abhijayate — takes his birth.
dhyanena — by meditation; atmani — within the self; kecit — some; atmanam — the Supersoul; atmana — by the mind; anye — others; sankhyena — of philosophical discussion; yogena — by the yoga system; karma-yogena — by activities without fruitive desire; ca — also; apare — others.
anye — others; tu — but; evam — thus; ajanantah — without spiritual knowledge; srutva — by hearing; anyebhyah — from others; upasate — begin to worship; te — they; api — also; ca — and; atitaranti — transcend; mrtyum — the path of death; sruti-parayanah — inclined to the process of hearing.
yavat — whatever; sanjayate — comes into being; kincit — anything; sattvam — existence; sthavara — not moving; jangamam — moving; ksetra — of the body; ksetra-jna — and the knower of the body; samyogat — by the union between; tat viddhi — you must know it; bharata-rsabha — O chief of the Bharatas.
samam — equally; sarvesu — in all; bhutesu — living entities; tisthan tam — residing; parama-isvaram — the Supersoul; vinasyatsu — in the destructible; avinasyantam — not destroyed; yah — anyone who; pasyati — sees; sah — he; pasyati — actually sees.
samam — equally; pasyan — seeing; hi — certainly; sarvatra — everywhere; samavasthitam — equally situated; isvaram — the Supersoul; na — does not; hinasti — degrade; atmana — by the mind; atmanam — the soul; tatah — then; yati — reaches; param — the transcendental; gatim — destination.
prakrtya — by material nature; ca — also; karmani — activities; kriyamanani — being performed; sarvasah — in all respects; yah — anyone who; pasyati — sees; tatha — also; atmanam — himself; akartaram — the nondoer; sah — he; pasyati — sees perfectly.
yada — when; bhuta — of living entities; prthak-bhavam — separated identities; eka-stham — situated in one; anupasyati — one tries to see through authority; tatah eva — thereafter; ca — also; vistaram — the expansion; brahma — the Absolute; sampadyate — he attains;
anaditvat — due to eternity; nirgunatvat — due to being transcendental; parama — beyond material nature; atma — spirit; ayam — this; sarira-sthah — dwelling in the body; api — though; kaunteya — O son of Kunti; na karoti — never does anything; na lipyate — nor is he entangled.
yatha — as; sarva-gatam — all-pervading; sauksmyat — due to being subtle; akasam — the sky; na — never; upalipyate — mixes; sarvatra — everywhere; avasthitah — situated; dehe — in the body; tatha — so; atma — the self; na — never; upalipyate — mixes.
yatha — as; prakasayati — illuminates; ekah — one; krtsnam — the whole; lokam — universe; imam — this; ravih — sun; ksetram — this body; ksetri — the soul; tatha — similarly; krtsnam — all; prakasayati — illuminates; bharata — O son of Bharata.
ksetra — of the body; ksetra-jnayoh — of the proprietor of the body; evam — thus; antaram — the difference; jnana-caksusa — by the vision of knowledge; bhuta — of the living entity; prakrti — from material nature; moksam — the liberation; ca — also; ye — those who; viduh — know; yanti — approach; te — they; param — the Supreme.
param — transcendental; bhuyah — again; pravaksyami — I shall speak; jnananam — of all knowledge; jnanam — knowledge; uttamam — the supreme; yat — which; jnatva — knowing; munayah — the sages; sarve — all; param — transcendental; siddhim — perfection; itah — from this world; gatah — attained.
idam — this; jnanam — knowledge; upasritya — taking shelter of; mama — My; sadharmyam — same nature; agatah — having attained; sarge api — even in the creation; na — never; upajayante — are born; pralaye — in the annihilation; na — nor; vyathanti — are disturbed; ca — also.
mama — My; yonih — source of birth; mahat — the total material existence; brahma — supreme; tasmin — in that; garbham — pregnancy; dadhami — create; aham — I; sambhavah — the possibility; tatah — thereafter; bhavati — becomes; bharata — O son of Bharata.
sarva-bhutanam — of all living entities;
sarva-yonisu — in all species of life; kaunteya — O son of Kunti; murtayah — forms; sambhavanti — they appear; yah — which; tasam — of all of them; brahma — the supreme; mahat yonih — source of birth in the material substance; aham — I; bija-pradah — the seed-giving; pita — father.
sattvam — the mode of goodness; rajah — the mode of passion; tamah — the mode of ignorance; gunah — the qualities; prakrti — material nature; sambhavah — produced of; nibadhnanti — do condition; maha-baho — O mighty-armed one; dehe — in this body; dehinam — the living entity;
tatra — there; sattvam — the mode of goodness; nirmalatvat — being purest in the material world; prakasakam — illuminating; anamayam — without any sinful reaction; sukha — with happiness; sangena — by association; badhnati — conditions; jnana — with knowledge; sangena — by association; ca — also; anagha — O sinless one.
rajah — the mode of passion; raga-atmakam — born of desire or lust; viddhi — know; trsna — with hankering; sanga — association; samudbhavam — produced of; tat — that; nibadhnati — binds; kaunteya — O son of Kunti; karma-sangena — by association with fruitive activity; dehinam — the embodied.
tamah — the mode of ignorance; tu — but; ajnana-jam — produced of ignorance; viddhi — know; mohanam — the delusion; sarva-dehinam — of all embodied beings; pramada — with madness; alasya — indolence; nidrabhih — and sleep; tat — that; nibadhnati — binds; bharata — O son of Bharata.
sattvam — the mode of goodness; sukhe — in happiness; sanjayati — binds; rajah — the mode of passion; karmani — in fruitive activity; bharata — O son of Bharata; jnanam — knowledge; avrtya — covering; tu — but; tamah — the mode of ignorance; pramade — in madness; sanjayati — binds; uta — it is said.
rajah — the mode of passion; tamah — the mode of ignorance; ca — also; abhibhuya — surpassing; sattvam — the mode of goodness; bhavati — becomes prominent; bharata — O son of Bharata; rajah — the mode of passion; sattvam — the mode of goodness; tamah — the mode of ignorance; ca — also; eva — like that; tamah — the mode of ignorance; sattvam — the mode of goodness; rajah — the mode of passion; tatha — thus.
sarva-dvaresu — in all the gates; dehe asmin — in this body; prakasah — the quality of illumination; upajayate — develops; jnanam — knowledge; yada — when; vidyat — know; vivrddham — increased; sattvam — the mode of goodness; iti uta — thus it is said.
lobhah — greed; pravrttih — activity; arambhah — endeavor; karmanam — in activities; asamah — uncontrollable; sprha — desire; rajasi — of the mode of passion; etani — all these; jayante — develop; vivrddhe — when there is an excess; bharata-rsabha — O chief of the descendants of Bharata.
aprakasah — darkness; apravrttih — inactivity; ca — and; pramadah — madness; mohah — illusion; ca — also; tamasi — the mode of ignorance; etani — these; jayante — are manifested; vivrddhe — when developed; kuru-nandana — O son of Kuru.
yada — when; sattve — the mode of goodness; pravrddhe — developed; tu — but; pralayam — dissolution; yati — goes; deha-bhrt — the embodied; uttama-vidam — of the great sages; lokan — the planets; amalan — pure; pratipadyate — attains.
rajasi — in passion; pralayam — dissolution; gatva — attaining; karma-sangisu — in the association of those engaged in fruitive activities; jayate — takes birth; tatha — similarly; pralinah — being dissolved; tamasi — in ignorance; mudha-yonisu — in animal species; jayate — takes birth.
karmanah — of work; su-krtasya — pious; ahuh — is said; sattvikam — in the mode of goodness; nirmalam — purified; phalam — the result; rajasah — of the mode of passion; tu — but; phalam — the result; duhkham — misery; ajnanam — nonsense; tamasah — of the mode of ignorance; phalam — the result.
sattvat — from the mode of goodness; sanjayate — develops; jnanam — knowledge; rajasah — from the mode of passion; lobhah — greed; ca — also; pramada — madness; mohau — and illusion; tamasah — from the mode of ignorance; bhavatah — develop; ajnanam — nonsense; ca — also.
gacchanti — go; sattva-sthah — those situated in the mode of goodness; madhye — in the middle; tisthanti — dwell; rajasah — those situated in the mode of passion; jaghanya — of abominable; guna — quality; vrtti-sthah — whose occupation; adhah — down; gacchanti — go; tamasah — persons in the mode of ignorance.
na — no; anyam — other; gunebhyah — than the qualities; kartaram — performer; yada — when; drasta — a seer; anupasyati — sees properly; gunebhyah — to the modes of nature; ca — and; param — transcendental; vetti — knows; mat-bhavam — to My spiritual nature; sah — he; adhigacchati — is promoted.
gunan — qualities; etan — all these; atitya — transcending; trin — three; dehi — the embodied; deha — the body; samudbhavan — produced of; janma — of birth; mrtyu — death; jara — and old age; duhkhaih — the distresses; vimuktah — being freed from; asnute — he enjoys.
arjunah uvaca — Arjuna said; kaih — by which; lingaih — symptoms; trin — three; gunan — qualities; etan — all these; atitah — having transcended; bhavati — is; prabho — O my Lord; kim — what; acarah — behavior; katham — how; ca — also; etan — these; trin — three; gunan — qualities; ativartate — transcends.
prakasam — illumination; ca — and; pravrttim — attachment; ca — and; moham — illusion; eva ca — also; pandava — O son of Pandu; na dvesti — does not hate; sampravrttani — although developed; na nivrttani — nor stopping development; kanksati — desires;
udasina-vat — as if neutral; asinah — situated; gunaih — by the qualities; yah — one who; na — never; vicalyate — is agitated; gunah — the qualities; vartante — are acting; iti evam — knowing thus; yah — one who; avatisthati — remains; na — never; ingate — flickers;
sama — equal; duhkha — in distress; sukhah — and happiness; sva-sthah — being situated in himself; sama — equally; losta — a lump of earth; asma — stone; kancanah — gold; tulya — equally disposed; priya — to the dear; apriyah — and the undesirable; tulya — equal; ninda — in defamation; atma-samstutih — and praise of himself;
mana — in honor; apamanayoh — and dishonor; tulyah — equal; tulyah — equal; mitra — of friends; ari — and enemies; paksayoh — to the parties; sarva — of all; arambha — endeavors; parityagi — renouncer; guna-atitah — transcendental to the material modes of nature; sah — he; ucyate — is said to be.
mam — unto Me; ca — also; yah — a person who; avyabhicarena — without fail; bhakti-yogena — by devotional service; sevate — renders service; sah — he; gunan — the modes of material nature; samatitya — transcending; etan — all these; brahma-bhuyaya — elevated to the Brahman platform; kalpate — becomes.
brahmanah — of the impersonal brahma-jyotir; hi — certainly; pratistha — the rest; amrtasya — of the immortal; avyayasya — of the imperishable; ca — also; ca — and; dharmasya — of the constitutional position; sukhasya — of happiness; aikantikasya — ultimate; ca — also.
urdhva-mulam — with roots above; adhah — downwards; sakham — branches; asvattham — a banyan tree; prahuh — is said; yasya — of which; parnani — the leaves; yah — anyone who; tam — that; veda — knows; sah — he; veda-vit — the knower of the Vedas.
adhah — downward; ca — and; prasrtah — extended; tasya — its; sakhah — branches; guna — by the modes of material nature; pravrddhah — developed; visaya — sense objects; pravalah — twigs; adhah — downward; ca — and; mulani — roots; anusantatani — extended; karma — to work; anubandhini — bound; manusya-loke — in the world of human society.
na — not; rupam — the form; asya — of this tree; iha — in this world; tatha — also; upalabhyate — can be perceived; na — never; antah — end; na — never; ca — also; adih — beginning; na — never; ca — also; sampratistha — the foundation; asvattham — banyan tree; enam — this; su-virudha — strongly; mulam — rooted; asanga-sastrena — by the weapon of detachment; drdhena — strong; chittva — cutting;
tatah — thereafter; tat — that; parimargitavyam — has to be searched out; yasmin — where; gatah — going; na — never; nivartanti — they come back; bhuyah — again; tam — to Him; ca — also; adyam — original; purusam — the Personality of Godhead; prapadye — surrender; yatah — from whom; pravrttih — the beginning; prasrta — extended; purani — very old.
nih — without; mana — false prestige; mohah — and illusion; jita — having conquered; sanga — of association; dosah — the faults; adhyatma — in spiritual knowledge; nityah — in eternity; vinivrtta — disassociated; kamah — from lust; dvandvaih — from the dualities; vimuktah — liberated; sukha-duhkha — happiness and distress; samjnaih — named; gacchanti — attain; amudhah — unbewildered; tat — that.
na — not; tat — that; bhasayate — illuminates; suryah — the sun; na — nor; sasankah — the moon; na — nor; pavakah — fire, electricity; yat — where; gatva — going; na — never; nivartante — they come back; tat dhama — that abode; paramam — supreme; mama — My.
mama — My; amsah — fragmental particle; jiva-loke — in the world of conditional life; jiva-bhutah — the conditioned living entity; sanatanah — eternal;
manah — with the mind; sasthani — the six; indriyani — senses; prakrti — in material nature; sthani — situated; karsati — is struggling hard.
sariram — the body; yat — as; avapnoti — gets; yat — as; ca api — also; utkramati — gives up; isvarah — the lord of the body; grhitva — taking; etani — all these; samyati — goes away; vayuh — the air; gandhan — smells; iva — like; asayat — from their source.
srotram — ears; caksuh — eyes; sparsanam — touch; ca — also; rasanam — tongue; ghranam — smelling power; eva — also; ca — and; adhisthaya — being situated in; manah — mind; ca — also; ayam — he; visayan — sense objects; upasevate — enjoys.
utkramantam — quitting the body; sthitam — situated in the body; va api — either; bhunjanam — enjoying; va — or; guna-anvitam — under the spell of the modes of material nature; vimudhah — foolish persons; na — never; anupasyanti — can see; pasyanti — can see; jnana-caksusah — those who have the eyes of knowledge.
yatantah — endeavoring; yoginah — transcendentalists; ca — also; enam — this; pasyanti — can see; atmani — in the self; avasthitam — situated; yatantah — endeavoring; api — although; akrta-atmanah — those without self-realization; na — do not; enam — this; pasyanti — see; acetasah — having undeveloped minds.
yat — that which; aditya-gatam — in the sunshine; tejah — splendor; jagat — the whole world; bhasayate — illuminates; akhilam — entirely; yat — that which; candramasi — in the moon; yat — that which; ca — also; agnau — in fire; tat — that; tejah — splendor; viddhi — understand; mamakam — from Me.
gam — the planets; avisya — entering; ca — also; bhutani — the living entities; dharayami — sustain; aham — I; ojasa — by My energy;
pusnami — am nourishing; ca — and; ausadhih — vegetables; sarvah — all; somah — the moon; bhutva — becoming; rasa-atmakah — supplying the juice.
aham — I; vaisvanarah — My plenary portion as the digesting fire; bhutva — becoming; praninam — of all living entities; deham — in the bodies; asritah — situated; prana — the outgoing air; apana — the down-going air; samayuktah — keeping in balance; pacami — I digest; annam — foodstuff; catuh-vidham — the four kinds.
sarvasya — of all living beings; ca — and; aham — I; hrdi — in the heart; sannivistah — situated; mattah — from Me; smrtih — remembrance; jnanam — knowledge; apohanam — forgetfulness; ca — and; vedaih — by the Vedas; ca — also; sarvaih — all; vedyah — knowable; vedanta-krt — the compiler of the Vedanta; veda-vit — the knower of the Vedas; ca — and; aham — I.
dvau — two; imau — these; purusau — living entities; loke — in the world; ksarah — fallible; ca — and; aksarah — infallible; ca — and; ksarah — fallible; sarvani — all; bhutani — living entities; kuta-sthah — in oneness; aksarah — infallible; ucyate — is said.
uttamah — the best; purusah — personality; tu — but; anyah — another; parama-atma — the Supreme Self; udahrtah — is said;
yah — who; loka — of the universe; trayam — the three divisions; avisya — entering; bibharti — is maintaining; isvarah — the Lord.
yasmat — because; ksaram — to the fallible; atitah — transcendental; aksarat — beyond the infallible; api — also; ca — and; uttamah — the best; asmi — I am; loke — in the world; vede — in the Vedic literature; ca — and; prathitah — celebrated; purusa-uttamah — as the Supreme Personality.
yah — anyone who; mam — Me; evam — thus; asammudhah — without a doubt; janati — knows; purusa-uttamam — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; sah — he; sarva-vit — the knower of everything; bhajati — renders devotional service; mam — unto Me; sarva-bhavena — in all respects; bharata — O son of Bharata.
guhya-tamam — the most confidential; sastram — revealed scripture; idam — this; uktam — disclosed; maya — by Me; anagha — O sinless one;
etat — this; buddhva — understanding; buddhi-man — intelligent; syat — one becomes; krta-krtyah — the most perfect in his endeavors; ca — and; bharata — O son of Bharata.
abhayam — fearlessness; sattva-samsuddhih — purification of one’s existence; jnana — in knowledge; yoga — of linking up; vyavasthitih — the situation; danam — charity; damah — controlling the mind; ca — and; yajnah — performance of sacrifice; ca — and; svadhyayah — study of Vedic literature; tapah — austerity; arjavam — simplicity; ahimsa — nonviolence; satyam — truthfulness; akrodhah — freedom from anger; tyagah — renunciation; santih — tranquillity; apaisunam — aversion to fault-finding; bhutesu — towards all living entities; aloluptvam — freedom from greed; mardavam — gentleness; hrih — modesty; acapalam — determination; tejah — vigor; ksama — forgiveness; dhrtih — fortitude; saucam — cleanliness; adrohah — freedom from envy; na — not; ati-manita — expectation of honor; bhavanti — are; sampadam — the qualities; daivim — the transcendental nature; abhijatasya — of one who is born of; bharata — O son of Bharata.
dambhah — pride; darpah — arrogance; abhimanah — conceit; ca — and; krodhah — anger; parusyam — harshness; ca — and; ajnanam — ignorance; ca — and; abhijatasya — of one who is born of; partha — O son of Prtha; sampadam — the qualities; asurim — of the demoniac nature.
daivi — transcendental; sampat — assets; vimoksaya — meant for liberation; nibandhaya — for bondage; asuri — demoniac qualities; mata — are considered; ma — do not; sucah — worry; sampadam — assets; daivim — transcendental; abhijatah — born of; asi — you are; pandava — O son of Pandu.
dvau — two; bhuta-sargau — created living beings; loke — in the world; asmin — this; daivah — godly; asurah — demoniac; ca — and; daivah — the divine; vistarasah — at great length; proktah — said; asuram — the demoniac; partha — O son of Prtha; me — from Me; srnu — just hear.
pravrttim — acting properly; ca — also; nivrttim — not acting improperly; ca — and; janah — persons; na — never; viduh — know; asurah — of demoniac quality; na — never; saucam — cleanliness; na — nor; api — also; ca — and; acarah — behavior; na — never; satyam — truth; tesu — in them; vidyate — there is.
asatyam — unreal; apratistham — without foundation; te — they; jagat — the cosmic manifestation; ahuh — say; anisvaram — with no controller;
aparaspara — without cause; sambhutam — arisen; kim anyat — there is no other cause; kama-haitukam — it is due to lust only.
etam — this; drstim — vision; avastabhya — accepting; nasta — having lost; atmanah — themselves; alpa-buddhayah — the less intelligent;
prabhavanti — flourish; ugra-karmanah — engaged in painful activities; ksayaya — for destruction; jagatah — of the world; ahitah — unbeneficial.
kamam — lust; asritya — taking shelter of; duspuram — insatiable; dambha — of pride; mana — and false prestige; mada-anvitah — absorbed in the conceit;
mohat — by illusion; grhitva — taking; asat — nonpermanent; grahan — things; pravartante — they flourish; asuci — to the unclean; vratah — avowed.
cintam — fears and anxieties; aparimeyam — immeasurable; ca — and; pralaya-antam — unto the point of death; upasritah — having taken shelter of; kama-upabhoga — sense gratification; paramah — the highest goal of life; etavat — thus; iti — in this way; niscitah — having ascertained; asa-pasa — entanglements in a network of hope; sataih — by hundreds; baddhah — being bound; kama — of lust; krodha — and anger; parayanah — always situated in the mentality; ihante — they desire; kama — lust; bhoga — sense enjoyment; artham — for the purpose of; anyayena — illegally;

artha — of wealth; see art.

sancayan — accumulation.
idam — this; adya — today; maya — by me; labdham — gained; imam — this; prapsye — I shall gain; manah-ratham — according to my desires; idam — this; asti — there is; idam — this; api — also; me — mine; bhavisyati — it will increase in the future; punah — again; dhanam — wealth; asau — that; maya — by me; hatah — has been killed; satruh — enemy; hanisye — I shall kill; ca — also; aparan — others; api — certainly; isvarah — the lord; bhogi — the enjoyer; siddhah — perfect; bala-van — powerful; sukhi — happy; adhyah — wealthy; abhijana-van — surrounded by aristocratic relatives; asmi — I am; kah — who; anyah — other; asti — there is; sadrsah — like; maya — me; yaksye — I shall sacrifice; dasyami — I shall give charity; modisye — I shall rejoice; ajnana — by ignorance; vimohitah — deluded.
aneka — numerous; citta — by anxieties; vibhrantah — perplexed; moha — of illusions; jala — by a network; samavrtah — surrounded; prasaktah — attached; kama-bhogesu — to sense gratification; patanti — they glide down; narake — into hell; asucau — unclean.
atma-sambhavitah — self-complacent; stabdhah — impudent; dhana-mana — of wealth and false prestige; mada — in the delusion; anvitah — absorbed; yajante — they perform sacrifice; nama — in name only; yajnaih — with sacrifices; te — they; dambhena — out of pride; avidhi-purvakam — without following any rules and regulations.
ahankaram — false ego; balam — strength; darpam — pride; kamam — lust; krodham — anger; ca — also; samsritah — having taken shelter of; mam — Me; atma — in their own; para — and in other; dehesu — bodies; pradvisantah — blaspheming; abhyasuyakah — envious.
tan — those; aham — I; dvisatah — envious; kruran — mischievous; samsaresu — into the ocean of material existence; nara-adhaman — the lowest of mankind; ksipami — I put; ajasram — forever; asubhan — inauspicious; asurisu — demoniac; yonisu — into the wombs.
asurim — demoniac; yonim — species; apannah — gaining; mudhah — the foolish; janmani janmani — in birth after birth; mam — Me; aprapya — without achieving; kaunteya — O son of Kunti; tatah — thereafter; yanti — go; adhamam — condemned; gatim — destination.
tri-vidham — of three kinds; narakasya — of hell; idam — this; dvaram — gate; nasanam — destructive; atmanah — of the self; kamah — lust; krodhah — anger; tatha — as well as; lobhah — greed; tasmat — therefore; etat — these; trayam — three; tyajet — one must give up.
etaih — from these; vimuktah — being liberated; kaunteya — O son of Kunti; tamah-dvaraih — from the gates of ignorance; tribhih — of three kinds; narah — a person; acarati — performs; atmanah — for the self; sreyah — benediction; tatah — thereafter; yati — he goes; param — to the supreme; gatim — destination.
yah — anyone who; sastra-vidhim — the regulations of the scriptures; utsrjya — giving up; vartate — remains; kama-karatah — acting whimsically in lust; na — never; sah — he; siddhim — perfection; avapnoti — achieves; na — never; sukham — happiness; na — never; param — the supreme; gatim — perfectional stage.
tasmat — therefore; sastram — the scriptures; te — your; karya — duty; akarya — and forbidden activities; vyavasthitau — in determining; jnatva — knowing; sastra — of scripture; vidhana — the regulations; uktam — as declared; karma — work; kartum — do; iha — in this world; arhasi — you should.
arjunah uvaca — Arjuna said; ye — those who; sastra-vidhim — the regulations of scripture; utsrjya — giving up; yajante — worship; sraddhaya — full faith; anvitah — possessed of; tesam — of them; nistha — the faith; tu — but; ka — what; krsna — O Krsna; sattvam — in goodness; aho — or else; rajah — in passion; tamah — in ignorance.
tri-vidha — of three kinds; bhavati — becomes; sraddha — the faith; dehinam — of the embodied; sa — that; sva-bhava-ja — according to his mode of material nature; sattviki — in the mode of goodness; rajasi — in the mode of passion; ca — also; tamasi — in the mode of ignorance; ca — and; tam — that; srnu — hear from Me.
sattva-anurupa — according to the existence; sarvasya — of everyone; sraddha — faith; bhavati — becomes; bharata — O son of Bharata; sraddha — faith; mayah — full of; ayam — this; purusah — living entity; yah — who; yat — having which;
sah — thus; sah — he.
yajante — worship; sattvikah — those who are in the mode of goodness; devan — demigods; yaksa-raksamsi — demons; rajasah — those who are in the mode of passion; bhuta-ganan — ghosts; ca — and; anye — others; yajante — worship; tamasah — in the mode of ignorance; janah — people.
asastra — not in the scriptures; vihitam — directed; ghoram — harmful to others; tapyante — undergo; ye — those who; tapah — austerities; janah — persons; dambha — with pride; ahankara — and egoism; samyuktah — engaged; kama — of lust; raga — and attachment; bala — by the force; anvitah — impelled;
karsayantah — tormenting; sarira-stham — situated within the body; bhuta-gramam — the combination of material elements; acetasah — having a misled mentality; mam — Me; ca — also; antah — within; sarira-stham — situated in the body; tan — them; viddhi — understand; asura-niscayan — demons.
aharah — eating; tu — certainly; api — also; sarvasya — of everyone; tri-vidhah — of three kinds; bhavati — there is; priyah — dear; yajnah — sacrifice; tapah — austerity; tatha — also; danam — charity; tesam — of them; bhedam — the differences; imam — this; srnu — hear.
ayuh — duration of life; sattva — existence; bala — strength; arogya — health; sukha — happiness; priti — and satisfaction; vivardhanah — increasing; rasyah — juicy; snigdhah — fatty; sthirah — enduring; hrdyah — pleasing to the heart; aharah — food; sattvika — to one in goodness; priyah — palatable.
katu — bitter; amla — sour; lavana — salty; ati-usna — very hot; tiksna — pungent; ruksa — dry; vidahinah — burning; aharah — food; rajasasya — to one in the mode of passion; istah — palatable; duhkha — distress; soka — misery; amaya — disease; pradah — causing.
yata-yamam — food cooked three hours before being eaten; gata-rasam — tasteless; puti — bad-smelling; paryusitam — decomposed; ca — also; yat — that which; ucchistam — remnants of food eaten by others; api — also; ca — and; amedhyam — untouchable; bhojanam — eating; tamasa — to one in the mode of darkness; priyam — dear.
aphala-akanksibhih — by those devoid of desire for result; yajnah — sacrifice; vidhi-distah — according to the direction of scripture; yah — which; ijyate — is performed; yastavyam — must be performed; manah — mind; samadhaya — fixing; sah — it; sattvikah — in the mode of goodness.
abhisandhaya — desiring; tu — but; phalam — the result; dambha — pride; artham — for the sake of; api — also; ca — and; yat — that which; ijyate — is performed; bharata-srestha — O chief of the Bharatas; tam — that; yajnam — sacrifice; viddhi — know; rajasam — in the mode of passion.
vidhi-hinam — without scriptural direction; asrsta-annam — without distribution of prasadam; mantra-hinam — with no chanting of the Vedic hymns; adaksinam — with no remunerations to the priests; sraddha — faith; virahitam — without; yajnam — sacrifice; tamasam — in the mode of ignorance; paricaksate — is to be considered.
deva — of the Supreme Lord; dvija — the brahmanas; guru — the spiritual master; prajna — and worshipable personalities; pujanam — worship; saucam — cleanliness; arjavam — simplicity; brahmacaryam — celibacy; ahimsa — nonviolence; ca — also; sariram — pertaining to the body; tapah — austerity; ucyate — is said to be.
anudvega-karam — not agitating; vakyam — words; satyam — truthful; priya — dear; hitam — beneficial; ca — also; yat — which; svadhyaya — of Vedic study; abhyasanam — practice; ca — also; vak-mayam — of the voice; tapah — austerity; ucyate — is said to be.
manah-prasadah — satisfaction of the mind; saumyatvam — being without duplicity towards others; maunam — gravity; atma — of the self; vinigrahah — control; bhava — of one’s nature; samsuddhih — purification; etat — this; tapah — austerity; manasam — of the mind; ucyate — is said to be.
sraddhaya — with faith; paraya — transcendental; taptam — executed; tapah — austerity; tat — that; tri-vidham — of three kinds; naraih — by men; aphala-akanksibhih — who are without desires for fruits; yuktaih — engaged; sattvikam — in the mode of goodness; paricaksate — is called.
sat-kara — respect; mana — honor; puja — and worship; artham — for the sake of; tapah — austerity; dambhena — with pride; ca — also; yat — which; kriyate — is performed; tat — that; iha — in this world; proktam — is said; rajasam — in the mode of passion; calam — flickering; adhruvam — temporary.
mudha — foolish; grahena — with endeavor; atmanah — of one’s own self; yat — which; pidaya — by torture; kriyate — is performed; tapah — penance; parasya — to others; utsadana-artham — for the sake of causing annihilation; va — or; tat — that; tamasam — in the mode of darkness; udahrtam — is said to be.
datavyam — worth giving; yat — that which; danam — charity; diyate — is given; anupakarine — irrespective of return; dese — in a proper place; kale — at a proper time; ca — also; patre — to a suitable person; ca — and; tat — that; danam — charity; sattvikam — in the mode of goodness; smrtam — is considered.
yat — that which; tu — but; prati-upakara-artham — for the sake of getting some return; phalam — a result; uddisya — desiring; va — or; punah — again; diyate — is given; ca — also; pariklistam — grudgingly; tat — that; danam — charity; rajasam — in the mode of passion; smrtam — is understood to be.
adesa — at an unpurified place; kale — and unpurified time; yat — that which; danam — charity; apatrebhyah — to unworthy persons; ca — also; diyate — is given; asat-krtam — without respect; avajnatam — without proper attention; tat — that; tamasam — in the mode of darkness; udahrtam — is said to be.
om — indication of the Supreme; tat — that; sat — eternal; nirdesah — indication; brahmanah — of the Supreme; tri-vidhah — threefold; smrtah — is considered; brahmanah — the brahmanas; tena — with that; vedah — the Vedic literature; ca — also; yajnah — sacrifice; ca — also; vihitah — used; pura — formerly.
tasmat — therefore; om — beginning with om; udahrtya — indicating; dana — charity; tapah — and penance; kriyah — performances; pravartante — begin; vidhana-uktah — according to scriptural regulation; satatam — always; brahma-vadinam — of the transcendentalists.

tat — that; anabhisandhaya — without desiring; phalam — the fruitive result; tapah — and penance; kriyah — activities; dana — of charity; kriyah — activities; ca — also; vividhah — various; kriyante — are done; moksa-kanksibhih — by those who actually desire liberation.
sat-bhave — in the sense of the nature of the Supreme; sadhu-bhave — in the sense of the nature of the devotee; ca — also; sat — the word sat; etat — this; prayujyate — is used; prasaste — in bona fide; karmani — activities; tatha — also; sat-sabdah — the sound sat; partha — O son of Prtha; yujyate — is used;
yajne — in sacrifice; tapasi — in penance; dane — in charity; ca — also; sthitih — the situation; sat — the Supreme; ca — and; ucyate — is pronounced; karma — work; ca — also; tat — for that; arthiyam — meant; sat — the Supreme; abhidhiyate — is indicated.
asraddhaya — without faith; hutam — offered in sacrifice; dattam — given; tapah — penance; taptam — executed; krtam — performed; ca — also; yat — that which; asat — false; ucyate — is said to be; partha — O son of Prtha; na — never; ca — also; tat — that; pretya — after death; na u — nor; iha — in this life.
arjunah uvaca — Arjuna said; sannyasasya — of renunciation; maha-baho — O mighty-armed one; tattvam — the truth; icchami — I wish; veditum — to understand; tyagasya — of renunciation; ca — also; hrsikesa — O master of the senses; prthak — differently; kesi-nisudana — O killer of the Kesi demon.
kamyanam — with desire; karmanam — of activities; nyasam — renunciation; sannyasam — the renounced order of life; kavayah — the learned; viduh — know; sarva — of all; karma — activities; phala — of results; tyagam — renunciation; prahuh — call; tyagam — renunciation; vicaksanah — the experienced.
tyajyam — must be given up; dosa-vat — as an evil; eke — one group; karma — work; prahuh — they say; manisinah — great thinkers; dana — charity; tapah — and penance; karma — works; na — never; tyajyam — are to be given up; ca — and; apare — others.
niscayam — certainty; srnu — hear; me — from Me; tatra — therein; tyage — in the matter of renunciation; bharata-sat-tama — O best of the Bharatas; tyagah — renunciation; hi — certainly; purusa-vyaghra — O tiger among human beings; tri-vidhah — of three kinds; samprakirtitah — is declared.
dana — charity; tapah — and penance; karma — activity; na — never; tyajyam — to be given up; karyam — must be done; tat — that; yajnah — sacrifice; danam — charity; tapah — penance; ca — also; pavanani — purifying; manisinam — even for the great souls.
etani — all these; api — certainly; tu — but; karmani — activities; sangam — association; tyaktva — renouncing; phalani — results; ca — also; kartavyani — should be done as duty; me — My; partha — O son of Prtha; niscitam — definite; matam — opinion; uttamam — the best.
niyatasya — prescribed; tu — but; sannyasah — renunciation; karmanah — of activities; na — never; upapadyate — is deserved; mohat — by illusion; tasya — of them; parityagah — renunciation; tamasah — in the mode of ignorance; parikirtitah — is declared.
duhkham — unhappy; yat — which; karma — work; kaya — for the body; klesa — trouble; bhayat — out of fear; tyajet — gives up; sah — he; krtva — after doing; rajasam — in the mode of passion; tyagam — renunciation; na — not; tyaga — of renunciation; phalam — the results; labhet — gains.
karyam — it must be done; eva — indeed; yat — which; karma — work; niyatam — prescribed; kriyate — is performed; arjuna — O Arjuna; sangam — association; tyaktva — giving up; phalam — the result; ca — also; sah — that; tyagah — renunciation; sattvikah — in the mode of goodness; matah — in My opinion.
na — never; dvesti — hates; akusalam — inauspicious; karma — work; kusale — in the auspicious; na — nor; anusajjate — becomes attached; tyagi — the renouncer; sattva — in goodness; samavistah — absorbed; medhavi — intelligent; chinna — having cut off;
na — never; hi — certainly; deha-bhrta — by the embodied; sakyam — is possible; tyaktum — to be renounced; karmani — activities; asesatah — altogether; yah — anyone who; tu — but; karma — of work; phala — of the result; tyagi — the renouncer; sah — he; tyagi — the renouncer; abhidhiyate — is said.
anistam — leading to hell; istam — leading to heaven;
misram — mixed; tri-vidham — of three kinds; karmanah — of work; phalam — the result; bhavati — comes; atyaginam — for those who are not renounced; pretya — after death; na — not; tu — but; sannyasinam — for the renounced order; kvacit — at any time.
panca — five; etani — these; maha-baho — O mighty-armed one; karanani — causes; nibodha — just understand; me — from Me; sankhye — in the Vedanta; krta-ante — in the conclusion; proktani — said; siddhaye — for the perfection; sarva — of all; karmanam — activities.
adhisthanam — the place; tatha — also; karta — the worker; karanam — instruments; ca — and; prthak-vidham — of different kinds; vividhah — various; ca — and; prthak — separate; cestah — the endeavors; daivam — the Supreme; ca — also; atra — here; pancamam — the fifth.
sarira — by the body; vak — speech; manobhih — and mind; yat — which; karma — work; prarabhate — begins; narah — a person; nyayyam — right; va — or; viparitam — the opposite; va — or; panca — five; ete — all these; tasya — its; hetavah — causes.
tatra — there; evam — thus; sati — being; kartaram — the worker; atmanam — himself; tu — but; yah — anyone who; pasyati — sees; akrta-buddhitvat — due to unintelligence; na — never; sah — he; pasyati — sees; durmatih — foolish.
yasya — one whose; na — never; ahankrtah — of false ego; bhavah — nature; buddhih — intelligence; yasya — one whose; na — never; lipyate — is attached; hatva — killing; api — even; sah — he; iman — this; lokan — world; na — never; hanti — kills; na — never; nibadhyate — becomes entangled.
jnanam — knowledge; jneyam — the objective of knowledge; parijnata — the knower; tri-vidha — of three kinds; karma — of work; codana — the impetus; karanam — the senses; karma — the work; karta — the doer; tri-vidhah — of three kinds; karma — of work; sangrahah — the accumulation.
jnanam — knowledge; karma — work; ca — also; karta — worker; ca — also; tridha — of three kinds; guna-bhedatah — in terms of different modes of material nature; procyate — are said; guna-sankhyane — in terms of different modes; yatha-vat — as they are; srnu — hear; tani — all of them; api — also.
sarva-bhutesu — in all living entities; yena — by which; ekam — one; bhavam — situation; iksate — one sees; avibhaktam — undivided; vibhaktesu — in the numberless divided; tat — that; jnanam — knowledge; viddhi — know; sattvikam — in the mode of goodness.
prthaktvena — because of division; tu — but; yat — which; jnanam — knowledge; nana-bhavan — multifarious situations; prthak-vidhan — different; vetti — knows; sarvesu — in all; bhutesu — living entities; tat — that; jnanam — knowledge; viddhi — must be known; rajasam — in terms of passion.
yat — that which; tu — but; krtsna-vat — as all in all; ekasmin — in one; karye — work; saktam — attached; atattva-artha-vat — without knowledge of reality; alpam — very meager; ca — and; tat — that; tamasam — in the mode of darkness; udahrtam — is said to be.
niyatam — regulated; sanga-rahitam — without attachment; araga-dvesatah — without love or hatred; krtam — done; aphala-prepsuna — by one without desire for fruitive result; karma — action; yat — which; tat — that; sattvikam — in the mode of goodness; ucyate — is called.
yat — that which; tu — but; kama-ipsuna — by one with desires for fruitive results; karma — work; sa-ahankarena — with ego; va — or; punah — again; kriyate — is performed; bahula-ayasam — with great labor; tat — that; rajasam — in the mode of passion; udahrtam — is said to be.
anubandham — of future bondage; ksayam — destruction; himsam — and distress to others; anapeksya — without considering the consequences; ca — also; paurusam — self-sanctioned; mohat — by illusion; arabhyate — is begun; karma — work; yat — which; tat — that; tamasam — in the mode of ignorance; ucyate — is said to be.
mukta-sangah — liberated from all material association; anaham-vadi — without false ego; dhrti — with determination; utsaha — and great enthusiasm; samanvitah — qualified; siddhi — in perfection; asiddhyoh — and failure; nirvikarah — without change; karta — worker; sattvikah — in the mode of goodness; ucyate — is said to be.
ragi — very much attached; karma-phala — the fruit of the work; prepsuh — desiring; lubdhah — greedy; himsa-atmakah — always envious; asucih — unclean; harsa-soka-anvitah — subject to joy and sorrow; karta — such a worker; rajasah — in the mode of passion; parikirtitah — is declared.
prakrtah — materialistic; stabdhah — obstinate; sathah — deceitful; naiskrtikah — expert in insulting others; alasah — lazy; visadi — morose; dirgha-sutri — procrastinating; ca — also; karta — worker; tamasah — in the mode of ignorance; ucyate — is said to be.
buddheh — of intelligence; bhedam — the differences; dhrteh — of steadiness; ca — also; gunatah — by the modes of material nature; tri-vidham — of three kinds; srnu — just hear; procyamanam — as described by Me; asesena — in detail; prthaktvena — differently; dhanam-jaya — O winner of wealth.
pravrttim — doing; ca — also; nivrttim — not doing; ca — and; karya — what ought to be done; akarye — and what ought not to be done; bhaya — fear; abhaye — and fearlessness; bandham — bondage; moksam — liberation; ca — and; ya — that which; vetti — knows; buddhih — understanding; sa — that; partha — O son of Prtha; sattviki — in the mode of goodness.
yaya — by which; dharmam — the principles of religion; adharmam — irreligion; ca — and; karyam — what ought to be done; ca — also; akaryam — what ought not to be done; ca — also; ayatha-vat — imperfectly; prajanati — knows; buddhih — intelligence; sa — that; partha — O son of Prtha; rajasi — in the mode of passion.
adharmam — irreligion; dharmam — religion; ya — which; manyate — thinks; tamasa — by illusion; avrta — covered; sarva-arthan — all things; viparitan — in the wrong direction; ca — also; buddhih — intelligence; sa — that; partha — O son of Prtha; tamasi — in the mode of ignorance.
dhrtya — determination; yaya — by which; dharayate — one sustains; manah — of the mind; prana — life; indriya — and senses; kriyah — the activities; yogena — by yoga practice; avyabhicarinya — without any break; dhrtih — determination; sa — that; partha — O son of Prtha; sattviki — in the mode of goodness.
yaya — by which; tu — but; dharma — religiosity; kama — sense gratification; arthan — and economic development; dhrtya — by determination; dharayate — one sustains; arjuna — O Arjuna; prasangena — because of attachment; phala-akanksi — desiring fruitive results; dhrtih — determination; sa — that; partha — O son of Prtha; rajasi — in the mode of passion.
yaya — by which; svapnam — dreaming; bhayam — fearfulness; sokam — lamentation; visadam — moroseness; madam — illusion; ca — also; na — never; vimuncati — one gives up; durmedha — unintelligent; dhrtih — determination; sa — that; partha — O son of Prtha; tamasi — in the mode of ignorance.
sukham — happiness; tu — but; idanim — now; tri-vidham — of three kinds; srnu — hear; me — from Me; bharata-rsabha — O best amongst the Bharatas; abhyasat — by practice; ramate — one enjoys; yatra — where; duhkha — of distress; antam — the end; ca — also; nigacchati — gains.
yat — which; tat — that; agre — in the beginning; visam iva — like poison; pariname — at the end; amrta — nectar; upamam — compared to; tat — that; sukham — happiness; sattvikam — in the mode of goodness; proktam — is said; atma — in the self; buddhi — of intelligence; prasada-jam — born of the satisfaction.
visaya — of the objects of the senses; indriya — and the senses; samyogat — from the combination; yat — which; tat — that; agre — in the beginning; amrta-upamam — just like nectar; pariname — at the end; visam iva — like poison; tat — that; sukham — happiness; rajasam — in the mode of passion; smrtam — is considered.
yat — that which; agre — in the beginning; ca — also; anubandhe — at the end; ca — also; sukham — happiness; mohanam — illusory; atmanah — of the self; nidra — sleep; alasya — laziness; pramada — and illusion; uttham — produced of; tat — that; tamasam — in the mode of ignorance; udahrtam — is said to be.
na — not; tat — that; asti — there is; prthivyam — on the earth; va — or; divi — in the higher planetary system; devesu — amongst the demigods; va — or; punah — again; sattvam — existence; prakrti-jaih — born of material nature; muktam — liberated; yat — that; ebhih — from the influence of these; syat — is; tribhih — three; gunaih — modes of material nature.
brahmana — of the brahmanas; ksatriya — the ksatriyas; visam — and the vaisyas; sudranam — of the sudras; ca — and; param-tapa — O subduer of the enemies; karmani — the activities; pravibhaktani — are divided; svabhava — their own nature; prabhavaih — born of; gunaih — by the modes of material nature.
samah — peacefulness; damah — self-control; tapah — austerity; saucam — purity; ksantih — tolerance; arjavam — honesty; ca — and;
jnanam — knowledge; vijnanam — wisdom; astikyam — religiousness; brahma — of a brahmana; karma — duty; svabhava-jam — born of his own nature.
sauryam — heroism; tejah — power; dhrtih — determination; daksyam — resourcefulness; yuddhe — in battle; ca — and; api — also; apalayanam — not fleeing; danam — generosity; isvara — of leadership; bhavah — the nature; ca — and; ksatram — of a ksatriya; karma — duty; svabhava-jam — born of his own nature.
krsi — plowing; go — of cows; raksya — protection; vanijyam — trade; vaisya — of a vaisya; karma — duty; svabhava-jam — born of his own nature; paricarya — service; atmakam — consisting of; karma — duty; sudrasya — of the sudra; api — also; svabhava-jam — born of his own nature.
sve sve — each his own; karmani — work; abhiratah — following; samsiddhim — perfection; labhate — achieves; narah — a man; sva-karma — in his own duty; niratah — engaged; siddhim — perfection; yatha — as; vindati — attains; tat — that; srnu — listen.
yatah — from whom; pravrttih — the emanation; bhutanam — of all living entities; yena — by whom; sarvam — all; idam — this; tatam — is pervaded; sva-karmana — by his own duties; tam — Him; abhyarcya — by worshiping; siddhim — perfection; vindati — achieves; manavah — a man.
sreyan — better; sva-dharmah — one’s own occupation; vigunah — imperfectly performed; para-dharmat — than another’s occupation; su-anusthitat — perfectly done; svabhava-niyatam — prescribed according to one’s nature; karma — work; kurvan — performing; apnoti — achieves; kilbisam — sinful reactions. saha-jam — born simultaneously; karma — work; sa-dosam — with fault; api — although; na — never; tyajet — one should give up; sarva-arambhah — all ventures; hi — certainly; dosena — with fault; dhumena — with smoke; agnih — fire; iva — as; avrtah — covered.
asakta-buddhih — having unattached intelligence;
sarvatra — everywhere;

jita-atma — having control of the mind; vigata-sprhah — without material desires; naiskarmya-siddhim — the perfection of nonreaction; paramam — supreme; sannyasena — by the renounced order of life; adhigacchati — one attains.
siddhim — perfection; praptah — achieving; yatha — as; brahma — the Supreme; tatha — so; apnoti — one achieves; nibodha — try to understand; me — from Me; samasena — summarily; kaunteya — O son of Kunti; nistha — the stage; jnanasya — of knowledge; ya — which; para — transcendental.
buddhya — with the intelligence; visuddhaya — fully purified; yuktah — engaged; dhrtya — by determination; atmanam — the self; niyamya — regulating; ca — also; sabda-adin — such as sound; visayan — the sense objects; tyaktva — giving up; raga — attachment; dvesau — and hatred; vyudasya — laying aside; ca — also; vivikta-sevi — living in a secluded place; laghu-asi — eating a small quantity; yata — having controlled; vak — speech; kaya — body; manasah — and mind; dhyana-yoga-parah — absorbed in trance; nityam — twenty-four hours a day; vairagyam — detachment; samupasritah — having taken shelter of; ahankaram — false ego; balam — false strength; darpam — false pride; kamam — lust; krodham — anger; parigraham — and acceptance of material things; vimucya — being delivered from; nirmamah — without a sense of proprietorship; santah — peaceful; brahma-bhuyaya — for self-realization; kalpate — is qualified.
brahma-bhutah — being one with the Absolute; prasanna-atma — fully joyful; na — never; socati — laments; na — never; kanksati — desires; samah — equally disposed; sarvesu — to all; bhutesu — living entities; mat-bhaktim — My devotional service; labhate — gains; param — transcendental.
bhaktya — by pure devotional service; mam — Me; abhijanati — one can know; yavan — as much as; yah ca asmi — as I am; tattvatah — in truth; tatah — thereafter; mam — Me; tattvatah — in truth; jnatva — knowing; visate — he enters; tat-anantaram — thereafter.
sarva — all; karmani — activities; api — although; sada — always; kurvanah — performing; mat-vyapasrayah — under My protection; mat-prasadat — by My mercy; avapnoti — one achieves; sasvatam — the eternal;
cetasa — by intelligence; sarva-karmani — all kinds of activities; mayi — unto Me; sannyasya — giving up; mat-parah — under My protection; buddhi-yogam — devotional activities; upasritya — taking shelter of; mat-cittah — in consciousness of Me; satatam — twenty-four hours a day; bhava — just become.
mat — of Me; cittah — being in consciousness; sarva — all; durgani — impediments; mat-prasadat — by My mercy; tarisyasi — you will overcome; cet — if; tvam — you; ahankarat — by false ego; na srosyasi — do not hear; vinanksyasi — you will be lost.
yat — if; asritya — taking shelter; na yotsye — I shall not fight; manyase — you think; mithya esah — this is all false; vyavasayah — determination; te — your; prakrtih — material nature; tvam — you; niyoksyati — will engage.
svabhava-jena — born of your own nature; kaunteya — O son of Kunti; nibaddhah — conditioned; svena — by your own; karmana — activities; kartum — to do; na — not; icchasi — you like; yat — that which; mohat — by illusion; karisyasi — you will do; avasah — involuntarily; api — even; tat — that.
isvarah — the Supreme Lord; hrt-dese — in the location of the heart; arjuna — O Arjuna; tisthati — resides; bhramayan — causing to travel; sarva-bhutani — all living entities; yantra — on a machine; arudhani — being placed; mayaya — under the spell of material energy.
tam — unto Him; saranam gaccha — surrender; sarva-bhavena — in all respects; bharata — O son of Bharata; tat-prasadat — by His grace; param — transcendental; santim — peace; sthanam — the abode; prapsyasi — you will get; sasvatam — eternal.
te — unto you; jnanam — knowledge; akhyatam — described; guhyat — than confidential; guhya-taram — still more confidential; maya — by Me; vimrsya — deliberating; etat — on this; asesena — fully; yatha — as; icchasi — you like; tatha — that; kuru — perform.
sarva-guhya-tamam — the most confidential of all; bhuyah — again; srnu — just hear; me — from Me; paramam — the supreme; vacah — instruction; istah asi — you are dear; me — to Me; drdham — very; tvaksyami — I am speaking; te — for your; hitam — benefit.
mat-manah — thinking of Me; bhava — just become; mat-bhaktah — My devotee; mat-yaji — My worshiper; mam — unto Me; namaskuru — offer your obeisances; mam — unto Me; esyasi — you will come; satyam — truly; te — to you; pratijane — I promise; priyah — dear; asi — you are; me — to Me.
sarva-dharman — all varieties of religion; parityajya — abandoning;
mam — unto Me; ekam — only; saranam — for surrender; vraja — go;
aham — I; tvam — you; sarva — all; papebhyah — from sinful reactions;
moksayisyami — will deliver; ma — do not; sucah — worry.
idam — this; te — by you; na — never; atapaskaya — to one who is not austere; na — never; abhaktaya — to one who is not a devotee; kadacana — at any time; na — never; ca — also; asusrusave — to one who is not engaged in devotional service; vacyam — to be spoken; na — never; ca — also; mam — toward Me; yah — anyone who; abhyasuyati — is envious.
yah — anyone who; idam — this; paramam — most; guhyam — confidential secret; mat — of Mine; bhaktesu — amongst devotees; abhidhasyati — explains; bhaktim — devotional service; mayi — unto Me; param — transcendental; krtva — doing; mam — unto Me; esyati — comes;
na — never; ca — and; tasmat — than him; manusyesu — among men; kascit — anyone; me — to Me; priya-krt-tamah — more dear; bhavita — will become; na — nor; ca — and; me — to Me; tasmat — than him; anyah — another; priya-tarah — dearer; bhuvi — in this world.
adhyesyate — will study; ca — also; yah — he who; imam — this; dharmyam — sacred; samvadam — conversation; avayoh — of ours; jnana — of knowledge; yajnena — by the sacrifice; tena — by him; aham — I; istah — worshiped; syam — shall be; me — My; matih — opinion.
sraddha-van — faithful; anasuyah — not envious; ca — and; srnuyat — does hear; api — certainly; yah — who; narah — a man; sah — he; api — also; muktah — being liberated; lokan — planets; prapnuyat — he attains;
kaccit — whether; etat — this; srutam — heard; partha — O son of Prtha; tvaya — by you; eka-agrena — with full attention; cetasa — by the mind; kaccit — whether; ajnana — of ignorance; sammohah — the illusion; pranastah — dispelled; te — of you; dhanan-jaya — O conqueror of wealth (Arjuna).
arjunah uvaca — Arjuna said; nastah — dispelled; mohah — illusion; smrtih — memory; labdha — regained; tvat-prasadat — by Your mercy; maya — by me; acyuta — O infallible Krsna; sthitah — situated; asmi — I am; gata — removed; sandehah — all doubts; karisye — I shall execute; vacanam — order; tava — Your.
sanjayah uvaca — Sanjaya said; aham — I; vasudevasya — of Krsna; parthasya — and Arjuna; ca — also; maha-atmanah — of the great soul; samvadam — discussion; imam — this; asrausam — have heard; adbhutam — wonderful; roma-harsanam — making the hair stand on end.
vyasa-prasadat — by the mercy of Vyasadeva; srutavan — have heard; etat — this; guhyam — confidential; aham — I; param — the supreme; yogam — mysticism; yoga-isvarat — from the master of all mysticism; krsnat — from Krsna; saksat — directly; kathayatah — speaking; svayam — personally.
rajan — O King; samsmrtya — remembering; samsmrtya — remembering; samvadam — message; imam — this; adbhutam — wonderful; arjunayoh — and Arjuna; hrsyami — I am taking pleasure; ca — also; muhuh muhuh — repeatedly.
tat — that; ca — also; samsmrtya — remembering; samsmrtya — remembering; rupam — form; ati — greatly; adbhutam — wonderful; hareh — of Lord Krsna; vismayah — wonder; me — my; mahan — great; rajan — O King; hrsyami — I am enjoying; ca — also; punah punah — repeatedly.
yatra — where; yoga-isvarah — the master of mysticism; krsnah — Lord Krsna; yatra — where; parthah — the son of Prtha; dhanuh-dharah — the carrier of the bow and arrow; tatra — there; srih — opulence; vijayah — victory; bhutih — exceptional power; dhruva — certain; nitih — morality; matih mama — my opinion.

Bhutesa—Lord of everything; the supreme controller of everyone. (10.15)
Deva—Supreme Personality of Godhead; God. (11.14, 11.15, 11.44, 11.45)
Devadeva—Lord of all demigods; God of gods. (10.15, 11.13)
Devavara—great one amongst the demigods; best of gods. (11.31)
Devesa—Lord of all lords; God of the gods. (11.25, 11.37, 11.45)

Hari—“He who removes all inauspiciousness and steals the hearts of His devotees.” (11.9, 18.77)
Isa—the Supreme Lord. (11.44)
Isvara—the Supreme Lord; the Supreme Controller. (4.6, 15.17, 18.61)
Jagannivasa—refuge of the universe. (11.25, 11.37, 11.45)

Lord of the entire universe. (10.15)

maintainer of all living entities; chastiser of the enemies; also “He who re-moves the ignorance of His devotees.” (1.35, 1.38, 1.43, 3.1, 10.18, 11.51)
Kala—time (another form of Krsna). (11.32)
Kamalapatraksa—lotus-petal-eyed one. (11.2)

killer of the Kesi demon. (18.1) See also Kesava; (Names of other persons) Kesi.

Krsna—‘dark blue’; the original, two-armed form of the Supreme Lord, who is the origin of all expansions; the Supreme Personality of Godhead; the all-attractive person. (1.28, 1.31, 1.40, 5.1, 6.34, 6.37, 6.39, 11.35, 11.41, 17.1, 18.75, 18.78)

Madhava—husband of the goddess of fortune; “He who appeared in the Madhu dynasty.” (1.14, 1.36)

Madhusudana—killer of the demon Madhu. (1.34, 2.1, 2.4, 6.33, 8.2) See also (Names of other persons) Madhu.

Mahabahu—having mighty arms. (6.38, 11.23, 18.1) See also (Names of Arjuna) Arjuna,.
—having mighty arms. (2.26, 2.68, 3.28, 3.43, 5.3, 5.6, 6.35, 7.5, 10.1, 14.5, 18.13) See also (Names of Sri Krsna) .
“Brazos largos”, es decir, los Yogis.

Mahatma—the great Lord; the great soul. (11.12, 11.20, 11.37, 11.50, 18.74)

Mahayogesvara—the most powerful mystic. (11.9)

Paramesvara—the supreme controller. (11.3, 13.28)

Prabhu—the Lord, or the Master. (9.18, 9.24, 11.4, 14.21)

Prajapati—the Lord of creatures (Visnu). (3.10)

Prapitamaha—the Lord is sometimes addressed as prapitamaha, the great-grandfather, be-cause He is the creator of Brahma who is known pitamaha, the grandfather and creator of one universe. (11.39) See also (Names of other persons) Brahma.

Purusottama, Puruṣottama
—Lord Krsna, who is the Supreme Person, meaning “the most exalted person.” (8.1, 10.15, 11.3, 15.18, 15.19)

thousand-handed one. (11.46)

dear friend. (11.41)
Friends who are younger than Krsna, who are always attached to Him and who give Him all kinds of service are called ordinary friends, or, simply, friends. Such ordinary friends are called sakhas – Nectar of Devotion

whose form is fierce. (11.31)

descendant of Vrsni. (1.40, 3.36)

the Supreme Lord, Krsna, son of Vasudeva, and proprietor of everything, material and spiritual. (7.19, 11.50, 18.74)

Visvamurti—personification of the universe. (11.46)

Visvarupa—whose form is the universe. (11.16)

Visvesvara—Lord of the universe; the ultimate controller. (11.16)

Yadava—He who appears in the Yadu dynasty. (11.41)

Yajña—“the personification of sacrifice”; the goal and enjoyer of all sacrifices. (3.9, 4.23)

Yogesvara—the supreme master of all mystic powers. (11.4, 18.75, 18.78)

Yogi—supreme mystic. (10.17)

Names of Arjuna

Anagha—sinless one. (3.3, 14.6, 15.20)

Arjuna—‘silver white’; the third son of Pandu and intimate friend of Lord Krsna. (1.46, 2.2, 2.45, 3.7, 4.5, 4.9, 4.37, 6.16, 6.32, 6.46, 7.16, 7.26, 8.16, 8.27, 9.19, 10.32, 10.39, 10.42, 11.47, 11.50, 11.54, 18.9, 18.34, 18.61, 18.76, (arjuna uvaca: 1.4, 1.21, 1.28, 2.4, 2.54, 3.1, 3.36, 4.4, 5.1, 6.33, 6.37, 8.1, 10.12, 11.1, 11.15, 11.36, 11.51, 12.1, 13.1, 14.21, 17.1, 18.1, 18.73)) See also (Names of persons) Pandu.

Bharata—descendant of Bharata. (2.14, 2.18, 2.28, 2.30, 3.25, 4.7, 4.42, 7.27, 11.6, 13.3, 13.34, 14.3, 14.8, 14.9, 14.10, 15.19, 15.20, 16.3, 17.3, 18.62) See also (Names of other persons) Bharata.

Bharatarsabha—chief amongst the descendants of Bharata; best of the Bharatas. (3.41, 7.11, 7.16, 8.23, 13.27, 14.12, 18.36) See also (Names of other persons) Bharata.

Bharatasattama—best of the Bharatas. (18.4) See also (Names of other persons) Bharata.

Bharatasrestha—chief of the Bharatas. (17.12) See also (Names of other persons) Bharata.

Dehabhrtam vara—best of the embodied. (8.4)

Dhanañjaya—conqueror of wealth. (1.15, 2.48, 2.49, 4.41, 7.7, 9.9, 10.37, 11.14, 12.9, 18.29, 18.72)

Dhanurdhara—carrier of the bow and arrow; carrier of the Gandiva bow, which can never be defeated in war. (18.78) See also (Weapons) Gandiva.

Gudakesa—Arjuna, the master of curbing ignorance. (1.24, 2.9, 10.20, 11.7)

Kapidhvaja—he whose flag was marked with Hanuman. (1.20) See also (Names of other persons) Hanuman.

Kaunteya—son of Kunti. (1.27, 2.14, 2.37, 2.60, 3.9, 3.39, 5.22, 6.35, 7.8, 8.6, 8.16, 9.7, 9.10, 9.23, 9.27, 9.31, 10.23, 10.27, 10.31, 13.2, 13.32, 14.4, 14.7, 16.20, 16.22, 18.48, 18.50, 18.60) See also (Names of other persons) Kunti, Prtha.

Kiriti—diademed one. (11.35)

Kurunandana—beloved child of the Kurus. (2.41, 6.43, 14.13) See also (Names of other persons) Kuru.

Kurupravira—best among the Kuru warriors. (11.48) See also (Names of other persons) Kuru.

Kurusattama—best amongst the Kurus. (4.31) See also (Names of other persons) Kuru.

Kurusrestha—best of the Kurus. (10.19) See also (Names of other persons) Kuru.

Pandava—the son of Pandu. (1.14, 1.20, 4.35, 6.2, 10.37, 11.13, 11.55, 14.22, 16.5) See also (Names of other persons) Pandu.

Partha—son of Prtha (Kunti). (1.25, 1.26, 2.3, 2.21, 2.32, 2.39, 2.42, 2.55, 2.72, 3.16, 3.22, 3.23, 4.11, 4.33, 6.40, 7.1, 7.10, 8.8, 8.14, 8.19, 8.22, 8.27, 9.13, 9.32, 10.24, 11.5, 11.9, 12.7, 16.4, 16.6, 17.26, 17.28, 18.6, 18.30, 18.31, 18.32, 18.33, 18.34, 18.35, 18.72, 18.74, 18.78) See also Kaunteya, Pandava; (Names of other persons) Prtha, Kunti.

Purusarsabha—best among men. (2.15)

Purusavyaghra—tiger among men. (18.4)

Savyasaci—ambidextrous archer. (11.33)

Tata—My (Krsna’s) friend. (6.40)

Names of Other Persons

Abhimanyu—‘into anger’; the heroic son of Arjuna and his second wife, Subhadra. (1.18) See also Saubhadra, Subhadra; (Names of Arjuna) Arjuna.

Agni—the demigod who controls fire. (8.24, 10.23, 11.39)

Aha—presiding deity of day; day personified as one of the eight Vasus. (8.24) See (Names of groups) Vasus.

Airavata—the elephant of King Indra that was produced from churning the ocean of milk by the demigods and demons. (10.27) See Indra.
Aryama—the demigod in charge of Pitrloka, the planet where qualified departed ancestors reside; one of the twelve Adityas who officiated at the post of Yamaraja when he incarnated himself. (10.29) See also Yama (Yamaraja); (Names of groups) Adityas.

Asvatthama—‘he who has the strength of a horse’; the son of Drona and Krpi (sister of Krpa). (1.8) See also Drona (Dronacarya), Krpa.
Asvatthama, (the horse-voiced). Maha-bharata Adi

Those old men that were touched by this monarch not only felt an indescribable sensation of pleasure but also became restored to youth. Therefore, this monarch was called Santanu. Maha-bharata Adi
… and the child was called Santanu because he was born when his father had controlled his passions by ascetic penances Maha-bharata Adi

hastinapura, founded by King Hasti

bharata, The supported

Bharata—another name of Dhrtarastra; descendent of Bharata. (1.24, 2.10) See Dhrtarastra. See also Bharata, Mahipati.

Bhima—the second son of Kunti (by Vayu); one of the five Pandavas. (1.4, 1.10, 1.15) See also Bhimakarma, Kunti, Vayu,

Bhimakarma—another name of Bhima, mea-ning “one who performs herculean tasks.” (1.15) See Bhima.

Bhisma (Bhismadeva)—‘terrible, awful’; the grandfather of the Pandavas, and the most powerful and venerable warrior on the Battlefield of Kuruksetra. (1.8, 1.10, 1.11, 1.12, 1.25, 2.4, 11.26, 11.34) See also: Kuruvrddha; (Names of groups) Pandavas; (Names of locations) Kuruksetra.

Bhurisrava—‘he whose praise abounds’; Kaurava warrior and one of the three sons of Somadatta, a King of the Kuru dynasty. (1.8) See also Kuru, Somadatta.

Brahma—one of the twelve mahajanas, authorities on devotional service to the Lord, and one of the primal demigods. He is the first created living being and secondary creator of the material universe. Directed by Lord Visnu, he creates all life forms in the universes. He also rules the mode of passion. (8.17, 8.18, 8.19, 10.33, 11.15, 11.37, 11.39) See also Visvatomukha; (Names of Sri Krsna) Prapitamaha; Disciplic succession, p. …

Brghu—the leader of many sages in the universe. (10.25)

Brhaspati—the spiritual master of King Indra and chief priest for the demigods. (10.24) See also Indra.

Cekitana—‘intelligent’; a warrior of the Yadu dynasty who fought on the side of the Pandavas. (1.5) See also Yadu; (Names of groups) Pandavas.

Citraratha—king of and best singer among the Gandharvas, the celestial demigod dancers, singers, and musicians of the heavenly planets. (10.26) See also (Names of groups) Gandharvas.

Devala—an ancient authority on the Vedas. (10.13)

Dhrstadyumna—‘he whose splendor is bold’; the first born son of King Drupada (drupada-putrena) and the brother of Draupadi. (1.3, 1.17) See also Draupadi, Drupada.

Dhrstaketu—‘he whose brightness is bold’; the son of Sisupala who took the side of the Pandavas during the Kuruksetra war and who was killed by Drona. (1.5) See also Drona (Dronacarya); (Names of groups) Pandavas; (Names of locations) Kuruksetra.

Dhrtarastra—the father of the Kurus and the uncle of the Pandavas whose attempt to usurp their kingdom for the sake of his own sons resulted in the Kuruksetra war. (1.1, 1.19, 1.20, 1.23, 1.24, 1.35, 1.36, 1.45, 2.6, 11.26, 11.35, 11.50) See also Bharata, Mahipati; (Names of groups) Kurus, Pandavas; (Names of locations) Kuruksetra.

Dhrti—Resolution or Satisfaction personified; daughter of Prajapati Daksa. (10.34)

Dhuma—presiding deity of smoke. (8.25)

Draupadi—the daughter of King Drupada, and wife of all five Pandavas; she was a great devotee of Lord Krsna. (1.6, 1.18) See also Drupada; (Names of Sri Krsna) Krsna; (Names of groups) Draupadeyas, Pandavas.

Drona (Dronacarya)—the martial preceptor of both the Pandavas and the Kurus; the commander-in-chief of the Kurus. (1.3, 1.7, 1.8, 1.25, 2.4, 11.26, 11.34) See also Dvijottama; (Names of groups) Kurus, Pandavas.

Drupada—‘rapid step’; the King of Pañcala, and the father of Draupadi and Dhrstadyumna. (1.3, 1.4, 1.18) See also Dhrstadyumna, Draupadi.

Duryodhana—‘dirty fighter’; the first born and chief of the evil-minded one hundred sons of Dhrtarastra, and chief rival of the Pandavas. (1.2, 1.12, 1.23) See also Dhrtarastra; (Names of groups) Dhartarastras, Kurus, Pandavas.

Dvijottama—another name of Drona, meaning “best of the brahmanas.” See Drona (Dronacarya).

Garuda—a great devotee, the son of Aditi and Kasyapa who takes the form of an eagle and is the eternal bird carrier of Lord Visnu. (10.30) See also Vainateya; (Names of Sri Krsna), Visnu.

Hanuman—son of Vayu; the famous great monkey devotee of Lord Ramacandra. (1.20) See also Vayu; (Names of Arjuna) Kapi-dhvajah.

Iksvaku—the son of Manu who was king of the earth at the beginning of the present manvantara and to whom Manu spoke Bhagavad-gita. (4.1) See also Manu.
Indra—the chief sovereign of heaven and pre-siding deity of rain. (9.20, 10.22) See also Vasava.

Isa—another name of Siva. (11.15) See Siva.

Janaka—one of the twelve mahajanas, authorities on devotional service to the Lord. He is the great self-realized king of Mithila, and the father of Sita-devi, consort of Lord Ramacandra. (3.20)

Jyoti—presiding deity of light. (8.24)

Kandarpa—Cupid, the god of love. (10.28)

Kartikeya—the son of Lord Siva, the god of war, and the chief of all military commanders; also known as Skanda and Subrahmanya. (10.24) See also Siva, Skanda.

Ksama—Patience or Forgiveness personified as the daughter of Daksa and wife of Pulaha. (10.34)

Kirti—Fame personified as the daughter of Daksa and the wife of Dharma; the devi who is the basis and cause of all reputation and fame. (10.34)
Good reputation

son of Satyaka’; a prominent member of the Yadu dynasty; intimate friend of Lord Krsna and student of Arjuna. (1.17) See also Yadu; (Names of Sri Krsna) Krsna; (Names of Arjuna) Arjuna.

—another name of Abhimanyu, the son of Subhadra, wife of Arjuna. (1.6, 1.18) See also Abhimanyu, Subhadra; (Names of Arjuna) Arjuna.

hima, snow

‘he who wears a tuft of hair’; child of Drupada; a Pandava warrior, born to kill Bhisma, who he hated from his previous life. (1.17) See also Bhisma, Drupada, (Names of groups) Pandavas.

Siva—one of the twelve mahajanas, authorities on devotional service to the Lord, and one of the primal demigods; the guna-avatara who is the superintendent of the mode of ignorance (tamo-guna) and who takes charge of destroying the universe at the time of annihilation; considered the greatest Vaisnava, or devotee, of Lord Krsna; “The Auspicious one.” (10.23, 11.15, 11.22) See also Isa, Sankara; (Names of Sri Krsna) Krsna; (Names of groups) Rudras.

Skanda—the son of Lord Siva and the god of war; also known as Kartikeya and Subrahmanya. (10.24) See also Kartikeya.

Somadatta—the son of King Bahlika and the grandson of King Pratipa. (1.8)

Smrti—Memory personified as the daughter of Daksa. (10.34)

Sri—Opulence or Beauty personified. (10.34)

Subhadra—younger sister of Lord Sri Krsna, and an incarnation of Yogamaya, the internal potency of the Supreme Lord; wife of Arjuna and mother of Abhimanyu. (1.6, 1.18) See also Abhimanyu, Saubhadra; (Names of Sri Krsna) Krsna; (Names of Arjuna) Arjuna.

Sukla—presiding deity of the white lunar fort-night. (8.24)

Sutaputra—another name of Karna meaning “son of the charioteer.” (11.26) See also Karna.

Uccaihsrava—Indra’s horse which was born during the churning of the ocean for nectar. (10.27) See also Indra.

Usana—the spiritual master of the demons and an extremely intelligent and far-seeing politician; also known as Sukracarya. (10.37) See also (Names of groups) Asuras.

Uttamauja—a warrior ally of the Pandavas. (1.6) See also (Names of groups) Pandavas.

Vak—Speech personified and the goddess of speech and learning; most frequently identified with Bharati or Sarasvati. (10.34)

Varuna—the demigod in charge of the oceans. (10.29, 11.39)

Vasava—another name of Indra as chief of the Vasus. (10.22) See Indra. See also (Names of groups) Vasus.

Vasudeva—Baladeva, or Balarama, Sri Krsna’s brother; in Bg. 10.37 “Vasudeva” does not refer to Sri Krsna. (10.37) See also (Names of Sri Krsna) Vasudeva.

Vasuki—king of the serpents. (10.28) (Names of groups) Nagas.

Vayu—the demigod in charge of the wind; father of Bhima and Hanuman. (11.39) See also Bhima, Hanuman.

Vikarna—a brother of Duryodhana. (1.8) See also Duryodhana.

Virata—‘ruling widely’; the King of the Matsyas who unknowingly sheltered the Pandavas during their last year of exile. (1.4, 1.17) See also (Names of groups) Pandavas.

Visvatomukha—another name of Brahma meaning “facing all sides”; sometimes also used as a name of Krsna. (10.33) See also Brahma.

Vittesa—“lord of wealth”; another name of Kuvera, the lord of the treasury of the demigods. (10.23) See Kuvera.

Vivasvan—the name of the present sun-god, and Sri Krsna’s first disciple to understand the science of Bhagavad-gita. (4.1, 4.4) See also (Names of Sri Krsna) Krsna.

Vrkodara Vrikodara —“voracious eater”; another name of Bhima. (1.15) See Bhima. See also Bhimakarma.
Vrikodara (वृकोदर) – wolf bellied or voracious eater.

Vrsni—a famous king of the Yadu dynasty, in which Lord Krsna appeared. (1.40, 3.36, 10.37) See also Yadu, (Names of Sri Krsna) Krsna,Varsneya.

Yama (Yamaraja)—the demigod who punishes the sinful after death. (10.29, 11.39) See also Aryama.

Yudhamanyu—a prince of Pañcala who fought on the side of the Pandavas. (1.6) See also (Names of groups) Pandavas.

Yudhisthira—‘he who is steady in battle’; the eldest of the five Pandavas, and the son of Dharmaraja (Yamaraja). (1.16) See also Yama (Yamaraja); (Names of groups) Pandavas.

Yuyudhana—‘anxious to fight’; the charioteer of Lord Krsna and a Pandava ally; also known as Satyaki, the son of Satyaka. (1.4) See also Satyaki; (Names of Sri Krsna) Krsna; (Names of groups) Pandavas.


Anantavijaya—name of King Yudhisthira’s conchshell, meaning “Unending victory.” (1.16) (Names of persons) Yudhisthira.

devavrata, god given

Devadatta—the conch of Arjuna which was obtained by Maya Danava from Varuna. The name means, “God given.” (1.15) See also (Names of Arjuna) Arjuna; (Names of persons) Varuna.

Manipuspaka—name of Sahadeva’s conch-shell, meaning “Jewel bracelet.” (1.16) See also (Names of persons) Sahadeva.

Pancajanya—the conchshell of Lord Sri Krsna. It was taken from the demon Pañcajana after Krsna slew him. (1.15) See also (Names of Sri Krsna) Krsna.

Paundra—the conchshell of Bhima. (1.15) See also (Names of persons) Bhima.

Sughosa—the conchshell of Nakula, meaning “Making a pleasant sound.” (1.16) See also (Names of persons) Nakula.

Adityas—the demigods who are descendants of Kasyapa Muni’s wife, Aditi. (10.21, 11.6, 11.22)

catvarah Four sages ()—four great sages; the four Kumaras named Sanaka, Sananda, Sanatana and Sanatkumara. (10.6)

Kurus—all of the descendants of King Kuru, but specifically the hundred sons of Dhrtarastra; enemies of the Pandavas. (1.25) See also Dhartarastras, Pandavas; (Names of persons) Dhrtarastra, Kuru.

Manus—demigods who are the ancestors of the human race; a generic name for any of the fourteen universal rulers who appear in each day of Lord Brahma. (10.6) See also (Names of persons) Brahma, Manu.

Maruts—the demigod associates of King Indra; the gods of the air, numbering forty-nine, and sons of Diti. (11.6, 11.22) See also Daityas; (Names of persons) Indra.

Nagas—a race of many-hooded serpents. (10.29)

Pandavas—the sons of Pandu; the five pious ksatriya brothers Yudhisthira, Bhima, Arjuna, Nakula, and Sahadeva who were intimate friends of Lord Krsna and who inherited the leadership of the world upon their victory over the Kurus in the Battle of Kuruksetra. (1.1, 10.37) See also (Names of Sri Krsna) Krsna; (Names of Arjuna) Arjuna; (Names of persons) Bhima, Nakula, Pandu, Sahadeva, Yudhisthira.

Raksasas—a race of man-eating demons. (10.23, 11.36)

Rudras—the expansions of Lord Siva who rule over the material mode of ignorance. (10.23, 11.6, 11.22) See also (Names of persons) Siva.

Sadhyas—minor demigods inhabiting the heavenly planets. (11.22)

Seven sages (maha-rsayah sapta)—the seven great sages are known as Kasyapa, Atri, Vasistha, Visvamitra, Gautama, Jamadagni and Bharadvaja; seven seers (rsis) who are situated on sapta-rsi loka, the seven stars of the Lesser Bear constellation. (10.6)

Siddhas—the minor demigod inhabitants of the Siddha planet (Siddhaloka), the heavenly planet whose inhabitants possess all mystic powers. (10.26, 11.21, 11.22)

Vasus—demigods; class of gods whose number is usually eight, and whose chief is Indra. (10.23, 11.6, 11.22) See also (Names of persons) Indra.

Visvedevas—group of twelve minor demigods (11.22)

Yaksas—the ghostly followers of the demigod Kuvera; semipious spirits. (10.23, 11.22) See also (Names of persons) Kuvera, Vittesa.


Brahmaloka—the highest planet of the universe, that of the demigod Lord Brahma. (8.16) See also (Names of persons) Brahma.

Candraloka—the moon planet. (8.25) See also (Names of persons) Sasanka.

Indraloka—the planet where Lord Indra resides. (9.20) See also (Names of persons) Indra.

Kuruksetra—a holy place named thusly due to the penances of King Kuru. It was here that the great Mahabharata war was fought, and where Lord Krsna spoke the Bhagavad-gita to Arjuna, five thou-sand years ago. It is situated about ninety miles north of New Delhi, and is a place of pilgrimage. (1.1) See also (Names of Sri Krsna) Krsna; (Names of Arjuna) Arjuna; (Names of persons) Kuru.

Martyaloka—the mortal earth. Mortal world, world of mortals (9.21)


Margasirsa—the month of November-December; considered the best of all months because in India grains are collected from the fields at this time and the people become very happy; the month when the moon enters the constellation of mrga siras (“deer head,” fifth lunar mansion). (10.35)

Omkara (pranava, aksara)
om, the root of Vedic knowledge; known as the maha-vakya, the supreme sound; the transcendental syllable which represents Krsna, and which is vibrated by transcendentalists for attainment of the Supreme when undertaking sacrifices, charities and penances. (7.8, 8.11, 8.13, 9.17, 10.25, 17.24) See also Om tat sat; (Names of Sri Krsna) Krsna.

The principal word in the Vedas – pranava, or om-kara – is the sound representation of the Supreme Lord. Therefore om-kara should be considered the supreme sound. – Teachings of Lord Caitanya
The Vaisnavas interpret om-kara, a combination of the letters a, u and m, as follows: The letter a indicates Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the letter u indicates Srimati Radharani, Krsna’s eternal consort, and the letter m indicates the living entity, the eternal servitor of the Supreme Lord. Sankara has not given such importance to om-kara. But such importance is given in the Vedas, the Ramayana, the Puranas and the Mahabharata, from beginning to end. Thus the glories of the Supreme Lord, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, are declared. – Teachings of Lord Caitanya

Om tat sat
the three transcendental syllables used by brahmanas for satisfaction of the Supreme when chanting Vedic hymns or offer-ing sacrifice. They indicate the Supreme Absolute Truth, the Personality of Godhead. (17.23-7)

Kamadhuk (Surabhi)—the cows in the spiritual world, which yield unlimited quantities of milk. (10.28)

Natural phenomena

Asvattha—the banyan tree. (10.26, 15.1) See Banyan.

Banyan—a sacred tree of the fig family with self-rooting branches. (10.26, 15.1) See also Asvatthah.

Ganges (Ganga)—the famous and holy Ganges river of India, which originates from the spiritual world and runs throughout the entire universe. (10.31)

Himalayas—the greatest mountains in the world; “Abode of snow.” (10.25)

Jahnavi—daughter of sage Jahnu; another name of the River Ganges. (10.31) See Ganges (Ganga).

Meru—a golden mountain famed for its rich natural resources, and one of the abodes of demigods like Siva (Isana), Brahma, Indra, Agni, Yama, Niruti, Varuna, Vayu, and Kuvera; also called Mahameru. (10.23) See also (Names of persons) Agni, Brahma, Indra, Kuvera, Siva, Varuna, Vayu, Yama.


Brahma-sutra (Vedanta-sutra)—the philoso-phical treatise written by Badarayana (Vyasa-deva), consisting of succinct aphorisms that embody the essential meaning of the Upanisads. (13.5, 15.15, 18.13) See also Brahma-sutra; (Names of persons) Vyasa. (13.5, 15.15, 18.13) See also Vedanta; (Names of persons) Vyasa.

Brhat-sama—one of the beautiful songs in the Sama Veda played by the various demigods; it has an exquisite melody and is sung at midnight. (10.35) See also Sama Veda.

Rg Veda—one of the four Vedas, the original scriptures spoken by the Lord Himself. (9.17)

Sama Veda—one of the four original Vedas consisting of musical settings of the sacrificial hymns; it is rich with beautiful songs played by the various demigods. One of these songs is the Brhat-sama, which has an exquisite melody and is sung at midnight. (9.17, 10.22, 10.35) See also Brhat-sama.

Vedanta (Vedanta-sutra, Brahma-sutra)—the philosophical treatise written by Badarayana (Vyasadeva), consisting of succinct aphorisms that embody the essential meaning of the Upanisads. (13.5, 15.15, 18.13) See also Brahma-sutra; (Names of persons) Vyasa.

Yajur Veda—one of the four Vedas, the original revealed scriptures spoken by the Lord Himself. The Yajur Veda gives different ritualistic prescriptions for performing yajñas (sacrifices) to please the Supreme Lord, Visnu. (9.17) See also (Names of Krsna) Visnu.


Gandiva—the famous bow of Arjuna gifted to him by Agni after the burning of the Khandava forest. 1.29 See also (Names of Arjuna) Arjuna; (Names of persons) Agni.

Ahobalam. Ahovalam
Ahobalam means: “Aho Balam (what great strength!)”

Ahobilam see ahobalam

akanda non-stop

aksobhya undisturbed . akshobhya

amala without imperfection
the blazing vehicle


anusasana instructions . anuśāsana

Ashtami (अ टमी aṣṭhamī) is the eighth day (Tithi) of Hindu lunar calendar.[1] . ashtami

bhargava discendente di Bhrigu
Bhashya translations .
bhasya commentary .

bila cave

Brahma Vadini
donne dedicate allo studio: non e’ richiesto loro di sposarsi ma possono farlo. . In base a l’ Harita Dharma-sutra della scuola Maitrayaniya dell’ Yajurveda. Le donne possono essere di due categorie.


cakri potter


chenchus, cenchus
tribal people

Chumbaka, Busa, Bosa The English word Kiss has its roots in the Samskrt word Busa, Bosa. In Latin, it came to be called Basium. There is also another word for kiss in Samskrt, called Chumba. Which is why magnet, the kissing stone is called Chumbaka in Samskrt.


dana charity some say dhana

dasami decimo dashami


desika guru

deva divine, heavenly . see under folder sanskrit terms

Dhai Ma nurse-mother .

dhrista to see dhrishta

dhvaja banner . vedi il file sotto sanskrit terms
Dipavali Deepa means candles, and bali means numerous .
doka watch
drona pot

Duti messenger

Gaura premanande Hari Hari bol This means that gaura-prema causes so much happiness that all chant hari bol .
ghanasyama black cloud .
Gocharana-lila Krishna pastimes of herding cows

green transl to sanskrit. Meaning
hara, meaning
hari monkey, lion .
Hari, meaning
hingula. red
Hridaya heart .

is used. This word indicates that one should be eager to hear the transcendental message. The desire to hear with interest is the primary qualification for assimilating transcendental knowledge.

it thus happened .

jagra-samadhi, samadhi while awake .

Finally there is the jnana-kanda, which recommends activities that enable one to reach the Absolute Truth and realize His impersonal feature in order to become one with Him. – Teachings of Lord Caitanya

notebook . punto sotto la d e ultima a lunga

kadaca-karta commentators .
kamandalu a type of waterpot
kanda section
kanda, meaning

how we can adjust material happiness or material living very nice.
The first division (the karma-kanda) recommends fruitive activities by which people can advance to higher planets. – Teachings of Lord Caitanya

karma-vasanas the accumulated residue of one’s previous activities .
kaurva of the kuravas .
kena What? How? Why – See file

Kinkari not waiting to be ordered . see article
ko’si who are you .
Kotak Carpentry Kotak , Takshak which becomes Tachchan in Tamil etc. .
krauda see kroda
Krishna black snake .
krishna dark .
ku means earth and pita means father.
kupita angry .
kupita ku means earth and pita means father .
kupita (angry)
kusuma flower .
lila sara essence of lilas .
Lohar Metallurgy from which comes Lohia .
lola beloved
mada orgoglio e altro vedi in propria folder
Madhusudana bumblebee .
malola beloved mother
mana anger pique . maan
gantha The name of this village has been derived from the word ‘gantha’ which means ‘knot’ and refers to this being the place where the ‘knot’ was tied. .

mani jewel .
maryada proper etiquette .
milana meeting .

moksa liberation . moksha
mrida happy
Mudgaras different types of iron clubs .
mula main sanskrit text .
nau (boat)
nau means we
Noka Vihara boat pastime .
paduka slipper, sandal
paksya period pakshya
pan drink
prema netra eye of love

priyatama dearest

rata, meaning

rekha line

good or appropiate conduct
see under articles

In general, gopis call their intimate friends sakhi.

The queen of cowherds

The black jewel

If one man has two wives and on any occasion he gives respect to one wife, the other wife has a mood of rivalry, becomes jealous, and will do maan.

that which harmonizes everything
sasaka a rabbit

Stop, restrain

sesto shasti
शस्ति f. zasti punishment
शास्ति f. zAsti order
षष्ठी मास्तिष्की f. SaSThI mAstiSkI abducent nerve [Anat.] षष्ठी मास्तिष्की f. SaSThI mAstiSkI sixth cerebral [Anat.] षष्ठी मस्तिष्की f. SaSThI mastiSkI cerebral, sixth
षष्टिसङ्ख्याकं यानं गतं वा? sent. SaSTisaGkhyAkaM yAnaM gataM vA? Has the Route-60 bus gone?
षष्टि f. SaSTi sixty
सस्ति verb sasti { sas } be inactive or idle
सस्ति verb sasti { sas } sleep
शास्ति f. zAsti correction
शास्ति f. zAsti ruling
शस्ति f. zasti praiser
शास्ति f. zAsti governing
शस्ति f. zasti praise
शस्ति f. zasti singer
शास्ति f. zAsti command
शस्ति f. zasti hymn
शास्ति f. zAsti sceptre
शास्ति f. zAsti direction
शास्ति f. zAsti punishment
शास्ति verb zAsti { zAs } praise
शास्ति verb zAsti { zAs } correct
शास्ति verb zAsti { zAs } administer the laws
शास्ति verb zAsti { zAs } restrain
शास्ति verb zAsti { zAs } foretell
शास्ति verb zAsti { zAs } chastise
शास्ति verb zAsti { zAs } predict
शास्ति verb zAsti { zAs } decree
शास्ति verb zAsti { zAs } announce
शास्ति verb zAsti { zAs } rule
शास्ति verb zAsti { zAs } govern
शास्ति verb zAsti { zAs } commend
शास्ति verb zAsti { zAs } proclaim
शास्ति verb zAsti { zAs } direct
शास्ति verb zAsti { zAs } bid
शास्ति verb zAsti { zAs } teach
शास्ति verb zAsti { zAs } inform
शास्ति verb zAsti { zAs } confess
शास्ति verb zAsti { zAs } punish
शास्ति verb zAsti { zAs } disdain
शास्ति verb zAsti { zAs } blame
शास्ति verb zAsti { zAs } instruct
शास्ति verb zAsti { zAs } control
शास्ति verb zAsti { zAs } reject
शास्ति verb zAsti { zAs } enjoin
शास्ति verb zAsti { zAs } censure
सास्थि adj. sAsthi having bones [said of any animal] साष्ठी f. sASThI small Banana
षष्ठी f. SaSThI sixth or genitive case
षष्ठी f. SaSThI sixth
षष्ठी f. SaSThI sixth day of a lunar fortnight
षष्ठी f. SaSThI personification of a portion of prakRti
षष्ठी f. SaSThI particular tithi when homage is offered to the sixth lunar digit
षष्टिस् ind. SaSTis sixty times
षष्ठिन् adj. SaSThin having a sixth
षष्ठिन् adj. SaSThin having or being the sixth
षष्टिक adj. SaSTika bought with sixty
षाष्टिक adj. SASTika sixty years old
षष्टिक f. SaSTika kind of rice of quick growth
षष्टिक n. SaSTika number 60
षाष्ठिक adj. SASThika explained in the sixth
षाष्ठिक adj. SASThika belonging to the sixth
षष्ठिका f. SaSThikA sixth day after a child’s birth personified
षाष्ठिक n. SASThika taking food with milk every sixth day
षष्टिधा ind. SaSTidhA sixtyfold
षष्टिधा ind. SaSTidhA in 60 ways or parts
षष्टिक्य adj. SaSTikya sown with the above rice
षष्टिक्य adj. SaSTikya fit for sowing with this rice
षष्टिदिन adj. SaSTidina relating to or lasting a period of 6o days
षष्टिलता f. SaSTilatA kind of plant
षष्टितम adj. SaSTitama sixtieth
षष्टितम adj. SaSTitama 60th
षष्ठीदेवी f. SaSThIdevI goddess SaSThI
षष्ठीजाय m. SaSThIjAya one who has a sixth wife
षष्ठीपूजा f. SaSThIpUjA worship of the goddess SaSThI
षष्टिमत्त m. SaSTimatta elephant which has reached she age of 60 years
षष्टिपथ m. SaSTipatha 60 paths
षष्टिरात्र m. SaSTirAtra period of 60 days
षष्टीष्टक adj. SaSTISTaka containing 60 bricks
षष्टिव्रत m. SaSTivrata particular religious observance
सास्थिवध m. sAsthivadha killing of any animal having bones
षष्टिहायन adj. SaSTihAyana 60 years old
षष्टिहायन m. SaSTihAyana period of 60 years or the 60th year
षष्टिहायन m. SaSTihAyana kind of grain or corn
षष्टिहायन m. SaSTihAyana elephant
षष्टितन्त्र n. SaSTitantra doctrine of 60 conceptions or ideas
षष्टिवर्षिन् adj. SaSTivarSin 60 years old
षष्टिवर्षिन् adj. SaSTivarSin having 60 years
षष्टियोजन adj. SaSTiyojana 60 yojanas distant
षष्टियोजनी f. SaSTiyojanI extent of 60 yojanas
षष्ठीजागर m. SaSThIjAgara waking on the sixth day after the birth of a child
षष्ठीपूजन n. SaSThIpUjana worship of the goddess SaSThI
सास्थिस्वानम् ind. sAsthisvAnam with the cracking sound of bones
षष्टिदक्षिण adj. SaSTidakSiNa having a sacrificial fee or gift of 60
षष्टिपथिक adj. SaSTipathika studying the SaSTipatha
षष्टिसहस्र n. SaSTisahasra 60 thousand
षष्टित्रिशत adj. SaSTitrizata consisting of 360
षष्टिसहस्रिन् adj. SaSTisahasrin numbering 60 thousand
शास्ति , शास्ते verb 2 zAsti , zAste { zAs } teach
शास्ति , शास्ते verb 2 zAsti , zAste { zAs } govern

merging into the Brahman effulgence of the Lord


Stapathi Town planning and Temple design .

sumya peaceful
surata, meaning
Surendra-lokam where the demigods live .
Svapna Vilas dream pastimes.

ceremony in which many suiters compete for the hand of the bride-to-be
It’s a ceremony in which the bride can select her own husband from an assembly of many princes. – Krishna Book

Sataghni weapon
The demon Bhaumasura immediately released a weapon called Sataghni, by which he could kill hundreds of warriors with one stroke

Syama, meaning
taranga wave

tarani (boat). means sun as well

tarau (trees)

tari boat

टीका f. TIkA comment
टीका f. TIkA remark
टीका f. TIkA commentary
टीका f. TIkA note
टीकाकार m. TIkAkAra commentator
टिकाकृत m. TikAkRta commentator
टीका f. TIkA annotation
तीकते verb tIkate { tIk } go
टिकते verb Tikate { TIk } jump
टिकते verb Tikate { TIk } move on
टिकते verb Tikate { TIk } trip
टीकयति verb caus. TIkayati { TIk } explain
टीकयति verb caus. TIkayati { TIk } make clear
टीकां लिखति verb 6 TIkAM likhati { likh } annotate

commentator par excellence

means Vedas, trayi means 3

three eyes

Upasana-kanda means how to worship the Supreme Lord or the demigod.
The section of the Vedas about worship

“Upa”- significa porsi ai piedi, stare vicino a Bhagavan, e “vasa”- risiedere in luoghi santificati
Fasting. See art.

vadhu wife . vedi sotto sanskrit terms
vadhuh — my daughter-in-law;

vadi followers, learned .
see under file under sanskrit terms

varnayati, describe

विगत adj. vigata destitute of light
विगत adj. vigata disappeared
विगत adj. vigata obscured
विगत adj. vigata dark
विगत adj. vigata ceased
विगत adj. vigata gloomy
विगत adj. vigata gone asunder
विगत adj. vigata come from
विगत adj. vigata gone
विगत adj. vigata dispersed
विगत adj. vigata abstaining or desisting from
विगत adj. vigata dead
विगत adj. vigata departed
विगत adj. vigata deceased
विगता f. vigatA girl in love with another or unfit for marriage
विगत n. vigata in twain
विगत n. vigata flight of birds
विगत ppp. vigata gone away
viraha separation .

visaya sense gratification . vedi il file sotto sanskrit terms vishaya

Upaniti, The ceremony performed to initiate a disciple into the study of spiritual science is called upanīti, or the function that brings one nearer to the spiritual master. Srimad-Bhagavatam 11.17.27

intiation with the sacred thread, second initiation

Devotional ativities before taking initiation (Caitanya Caritamrita)
Upon making this decision, the two brothers at once took steps to leave their material engagements, and they appointed two learned brahmanas to perform certain Vedic religious rituals that would enable them to achieve complete freedom for the devotional service of Krsna. These preliminary ritualistic functions are known as purascarya
La palabra purascarana (o purascarya) se compone de dos palabras: pura (antes) y carana (desde carya, activitades). El purascarana es una practica preliminare que facilita la pratica predominante, o talvez identificada como la pratica total.
En el Caitanya Caritamrita (Madhyalila 19.5) Srila Prabhupada dice:
“Un purascarana es una ceremonias rituale que se celebra bajo la guía de un maestro espiritual experto o de un brahmana. Se lleva a cabo para satisfacer determinados deseos. Hay que levantarse temprano por la manana, cantar el mantra Hare Krishna, realizar arcana mediante la ceremonia de ārati y adorar a las Deidades.”
En definitiva purascarana coresponde a nuestro sadhana, a lo que practicamo cada dia. Para tener exito en nuestra vida espirituale, o como usted menciona, para veer Mahaprabhu, es necesario observar atentamente la reglas que nuestro Acaryas nos ha ensenado.

Pravriddha, Pravrddha
प्रवृद्ध fully developed, strong (art,)

“When the lover considers himself to be nondifferent from the beloved out of great love it is called viśrambha.”
“Viśrambha means that faith in which you keep no thoughts hidden from each other and there is no awe and reverence.
This confidential attachment for the Supreme Personality is technically known as visrambha – Teachings of Lord Caitanya
confidentiality without reverence.

vriddha (vriddha), old

visrambha-bhava, intimacy

descriptions .

vyākulam full of

Nirukta is one of the six Vedangas and is the science of the correct interpretation of Sanskrit words (etymlogy).

ani, tip

can be split into yaminyam means night and usitah means pass. yaminyamusitah Krishna took it as yaminya-musitah means kidnapped by yamini (night).

meeting place

red colored powder (gulala) on each other.

Abhisheka – sacred bathing ceremony of the temple deity
Achamana – ritual of purification with water, mudras, and mantras
Acharya – a guru who teaches by example
Aprakata-lila – Krishna’s un-manifested or hidden pastimes

Apsara – the beautiful dancing girls from the heavenly planets.
Urvasi, Purvachitti, Sahajanya, Menaka, Visvaci and Ghritaci, these are the six foremost of Apsaras.

Ashrama – a hermitage for holy men
Ashta-kaliya-lila – Krishna’s eightfold daily pastimes
Ashta-sakhis – the eight principle gopis and companions of Radharani
Ashvamedha-yajna – Vedic horse sacrifice
Avatara – the incarnation of God who descends from the spiritual world
Baithaka – sitting place”
“Bhajana – process of meditation by chanting on beads
Bhajana – singing devotional songs
Bhajana Kutira – a simple hut for solitary meditation
Bhakti – the process of devotional service to Krishna
Bhava – pure spiritual emotion
Brahma – the avatar of Lord Vishnu in the mode of passion
Brahma – the anti-material spiritual energy
Brahmachari – a celibate student
Brahmana – a Vedic priest and learned person of the highest caste.
Brijbasi – (see Vrajavasi)
Brijbasha – local Hindi dialect spoken in the Vrindavana Area
Chakra – the fiery disc-like weapon of Lord Vishnu
Chandra – the moon and also the name of the moon god”
Chaurasi-kosa – 84 kosa – equal to 168 miles which is the diameter of the holy Dhama

Chaturmasya – the four months of the rainy season
Dana – a tax , a toll, and also a donation
Darshana – to see something sacred like a deity, a holy place, or holy person
Dauji – one’s elder brother
Deha – the material or spiritual body
Dhama – the earthly abode of the Lord like Vrindavana or Dwaraka
Dharma – the practice of eternal religion and its principles
Ekadashi – the 11th day after the waxing and waning moons, a day of fasting from grains
Ekanamsa – Krishna’s sister born of Yashoda, also called Yogamaya Devi”
Gaudiya – a geographical reference meaning either Bengal or northern India
Gaudiya Vaishnava – a follower of Lord Chaitanya
Gaudiya sampradaya – the northern branch of the Madhava sampradaya
Ghata – steps going down the bank of a river or lake
Ghata – the meeting point of two hills, or any steep incline
Gocharana-lila – Krishna’s pastimes of herding cows
Gocharana – the hoof-print of cows
Gopa – a cowherd boy or man of Vrindavana
Gopi – a cowherd girl or milkmaid of Vrindavana
Goshala – a dairy farm or place where cows live
Goswami – a holy man renounced from family life who has gained control over his senses
Guru – a teacher of the Vedas
Gurukula – the residential school or teaching place of a guru
“Harinama – chanting the holy names of the Lord
Harinama-sankirtana – the congregational chanting of gods names
Hladini-sakti – the internal potency of the Lord personified by Radharani
Holi – the festival of throwing colors also known as Dola-yatra in Bengal and Orissa

– the senses

– chanting the holy names on beads
Literally japa means muttering, or reciting mantras with a tone of voice just enough that the reciter can hear himself. Maha-bharata adi
See art

– a swing used by the gopis

Jiva – the identity of the self as pure spirit soul
from the sanskrit root jiv, to live, from Monier Williams.

Jnana – knowledge, especially of the self

Kali-yuga – the present age symptomised by irreligion, quarrel, and hypocrisy

Karttika – the most sacred and auspicious month of the Vedic calendar (Oct/Nov)

Khandi – a large grove of trees belonging to the same species”

Kirtana – group chanting of the holy names

Kosa krosa kosha
– an ancient measurement equal to about two miles
A kosa, also called krosha, is 1.91 miles or 3 kilometers

a chivalrous warrior or prince of the marshal caste

Kunda – a sacred lake

– a sacred forest bower

– a sacred well

Lila – the sacred pastimes of Krishna

Lila-sthana – a sacred place of Krishna’s pastimes (also lila-sthala)

Lila-smaranam – remembering the transcendental pastimes of Krishna”

One particular word is used herein for proper guidance. This word is susrusu. One must be anxious to hear this transcendental message. The desire to sincerely hear is the first qualification. * Srimad-Bhagavatam 1

dharmah — religiosity; projjhita — completely rejected; kaitavah — covered by fruitive intention; atra — herein; paramah — the highest; nirmatsaranam — of the one-hundred-percent pure in heart; satam — devotees; vedyam — understandable; vastavam — factual; atra — herein; vastu — substance; sivadam — well-being; tapa-traya — threefold miseries; unmulanam — causing uprooting of; bhagavate — the Bhagavata Purana; maha-muni — the great sage (Vyasadeva); krte — having compiled; kim — what is; va — the need; paraih — others; isvarah — the Supreme Lord; sadyah — at once; hrdi — within the heart; avarudhyate — become compact; atra — herein; krtibhih — by the pious men; susrusubhih — by culture; tat-ksanat — without delay. * Srimad-Bhagavatam 1

nigama — the Vedic literatures; kalpa-taroh — the desire tree; galitam — fully matured; phalam — fruit; suka — Srila Sukadeva Gosvami, the original speaker of Srimad-Bhagavatam; mukhat — from the lips of; drava — semisolid and soft and therefore easily swallowable; samyutam — perfect in all respects; pibata — do relish it; bhagavatam — the book dealing in the science of the eternal relation with the Lord; rasam — juice (that which is relishable); alayam — until liberation, or even in a liberated condition; muhuh — always; aho — O; rasikah — those who are full in the knowledge of mellows; bhuvi — on the earth; bhavukah — expert and thoughtful. * Srimad-Bhagavatam 1

parthivat — from earth; darunah — firewood; dhumah — smoke; tasmat — from that; agnih — fire; trayi — Vedic sacrifices; mayah — made of; tamasah — in the mode of ignorance; tu — but; rajah — the mode of passion; tasmat — from that; sattvam — the mode of goodness; yat — which; brahma — the Absolute Truth; darsanam — realization. * Srimad-Bhagavatam 1

vai — certainly; kavayah — all transcendentalists; nityam — from time immemorial; bhaktim — service unto the Lord; paramaya — supreme; muda — with great delight; vasudeve — Sri Krsna; bhagavati — the Personality of Godhead; kurvanti — do render; prasadanim — that which enlivens. * Srimad-Bhagavatam 1

bhidyate — pierced; hrdaya — heart; granthih — knots; chidyante — cut to pieces; sarva — all; ksiyante — terminated; asya — his; karmani — chain of fruitive actions; drste — having seen; eva — certainly; atmani — unto the self; isvare — dominating. * Srimad-Bhagavatam 1

prasanna — enlivened; manasah — of the mind; bhagavat-bhakti — the devotional service of the Lord; yogatah — by contact of; bhagavat — regarding the Personality of Godhead; tattva — knowledge; vijnanam — scientific; mukta — liberated; sangasya — of the association; jayate — becomes effective. * Srimad-Bhagavatam
rajah — in the mode of passion; tamah — the mode of ignorance; bhavah — the situation; kama — lust and desire; lobha — hankering; adayah — others; ye — whatever they are; cetah — the mind; etaih — by these; anaviddham — without being affected; sthitam — being fixed; sattve — in the mode of goodness; prasidati — thus becomes fully satisfied. * Srimad-Bhagavatam 1

nasta — destroyed; prayesu — almost to nil; abhadresu — all that is inauspicious; nityam — regularly; sevaya — by serving; bhagavati — unto the Personality of Godhead; uttama — transcendental; sloke — prayers; bhaktih — loving service; bhavati — comes into being; naisthiki — irrevocable. * Srimad-Bhagavatam 1

srnvatam — those who have developed the urge to hear the message of; sva-kathah — His own words; krsnah — the Personality of Godhead; sravana — hearing; kirtanah — chanting; hrdi antah sthah — within one’s heart; abhadrani — desire to enjoy matter; vidhunoti — cleanses; suhrt — benefactor; satam — of the truthful. * Srimad-Bhagavatam 1

susrusoh — one who is engaged in hearing; sraddadhanasya — with care and attention; vasudeva — in respect to Vasudeva; katha — the message; rucih — affinity; syat — is made possible; mahat-sevaya — by service rendered to pure devotees; viprah — O twice-born;
nisevanat — by service. * Srimad-Bhagavatam 1
yat — which; anudhya — remembrance; asina — sword; yuktah — being equipped with; karma — reactionary work; granthi — knot; nibandhanam — interknit; chindanti — cut; tasya — His; kah — who; kuryat — shall do; katha — messages; ratim — attention. * Srimad-Bhagavatam 1

atah — so; therefore; this; from this;
atah param—hereafter.
atah urdhvam — thereafter;

pumbhih — by the human being;
varna-asrama — the institution of four castes and four orders of life; vibhagasah — by the division of;
svanusthitasya — of one’s own prescribed duties; dharmasya — occupational;
samsiddhih — the highest perfection; hari — the Personality of Godhead; tosanam — pleasing. * Srimad-Bhagavatam 1
tat — that; sraddadhanah — seriously inquisitive; munayah — sages; vairagya — detachment; yuktaya — well equipped with; atmani — within himself; atmanam — the Paramatma; bhaktya — in devotional service; sruta — the Vedas; grhitaya — well received. * Srimad-Bhagavatam 1
vadanti — they say; tat — that; tattva-vidah — the learned souls; tattvam — the Absolute Truth; yat — which; advayam — nondual; brahma iti — known as Brahman; paramatma iti — known as Paramatma; bhagavan iti — known as Bhagavan; sabdyate — it so sounded. * Srimad-Bhagavatam 1
kamasya — of desires; indriya — senses; pritih — satisfaction; labhah — gain; jiveta — self-preservation; yavata — so much so; jivasya — of the living being; tattva — the Absolute Truth; jijnasa — inquiries; arthah — end; yah ca iha — whatsoever else; karmabhih — by occupational activities. * Srimad-Bhagavatam 1
dharmasya — occupational engagement; apavargyasya — ultimate liberation; arthah — end; arthaya — for material gain; upakalpate — is meant for; arthasya — of material gain; dharma-eka-antasya — for one who is engaged in the ultimate occupational service; kamah — sense gratification; labhaya — attainment of; hi — exactly; smrtah — is described by the great sages. * Srimad-Bhagavatam 1

dharmah — occupation; svanusthitah — executed in terms of one’s own position; pumsam — of humankind; visvaksena — the Personality of Godhead (plenary portion); kathasu — in the message of; yah — what is; utpadayet — does produce; yadi — if; ratim — attraction; sramah — useless labor; eva — only; * Srimad-Bhagavatam 1
vasudeve — unto Krsna; bhagavati — unto the Personality of Godhead; bhakti-yogah — contact of devotional service; prayojitah — being applied; janayati — does produce; asu — very soon; vairagyam — detachment; yat — that which; * Srimad-Bhagavatam 1
vai — certainly; pumsam — for mankind; parah — sublime; dharmah — occupation; yatah — by which; bhaktih — devotional service; adhoksaje — unto the Transcendence; ahaituki — causeless; apratihata — unbroken; yaya — by which; atma — the self; suprasidati — completely satisfied. * Srimad-Bhagavatam 1
munayah — O sages; sadhu — this is relevant; prstah — questioned; bhavadbhih — by all of you; loka — the world; mangalam — welfare; yat — because; krtah — made; krsna — the Personality of Godhead; samprasnah — relevant question; yena — by which; suprasidati — completely pleased. * Srimad-Bhagavatam 1

narayanam — the Personality of Godhead; namah-krtya (namaskrtya) — after offering respectful obeisances; naram ca eva — and Narayana Rsi; nara-uttamam — the supermost human being; devim — the goddess; sarasvatim — the mistress of learning; tatah — thereafter; jayam — all that is meant for conquering; udirayet — be announced. * Srimad-Bhagavatam 1

karuna, mercy

yah — he who; sva-anubhavam — self-assimilated (experienced); akhila — all around; sruti — the Vedas; ekam — the only one; adhyatma — transcendental; dipam — torchlight; atititirsatam — desiring to overcome; tamah andham — deeply dark material existence; samsarinam — of the materialistic men; aha — said; purana — supplement to the Vedas; guhyam — very confidential; tam — unto him; vyasa-sunum — the son of Vyasadeva; upayami — let me offer my obeisances; gurum — the spiritual master; muninam — of the great sages. * Srimad-Bhagavatam 1
yam — whom; pravrajantam — while going away for the renounced order of life; anupetam — without being reformed by the sacred thread; apeta — not undergoing ceremonies; krtyam — prescribed duties; dvaipayanah — Vyasadeva; viraha — separation; katarah — being afraid of; ajuhava — exclaimed; putra iti — O my son; tat-mayataya — being absorbed in that way; taravah — all the trees; abhineduh — responded; tam — unto him; sarva — all; bhuta — living entities; hrdayam — heart; munim — sage; anatah asmi — offer obeisances. * Srimad-Bhagavatam 1
samprasna — perfect inquiries; samhrstah — perfectly satisfied; vipranam — of the sages there; raumaharsanih — the son of Romaharsana, namely Ugrasrava; pratipujya — after thanking them; vacah — words; tesam — their; pravaktum — to reply to them; upacakrame — attempted. * Srimad-Bhagavatam 1
yoga-isvare — the Lord of all mystic powers; krsne — Lord Krsna; brahmanye — the Absolute Truth; dharma — religion; varmani — protector; svam — own; kastham — abode; adhuna — nowadays; upete — having gone away; dharmah — religion; kam — unto whom; saranam — shelter; gatah — gone. * Srimad-Bhagavatam 1
tvam — Your Goodness; nah — unto us; sandarsitah — meeting; dhatra — by providence; dustaram — insurmountable; nistitirsatam — for those desiring to cross over; kalim — the age of Kali; sattva-haram — that which deteriorates the good qualities; pumsam — of a man; karna-dharah — captain; iva — as; arnavam — the ocean. * Srimad-Bhagavatam 1
krtavan — done by; karmani — acts; saha — along with; ramena — Balarama; kesavah — Sri Krsna; atimartyani — superhuman; gudhah — masked as; kapata — apparently; manusah — human being. SB 1
kalim — the age of Kali (iron age of quarrel); agatam — having arrived; ajnaya — knowing this; ksetre — in this tract of land; asmin — in this; vaisnave — specially meant for the devotee of the Lord; vayam — we; asinah — seated; dirgha — prolonged; satrena — for performance of sacrifices; kathayam — in the words of; sa-ksanah — with time at our disposal; hareh — of the Personality of Godhead. * Srimad-Bhagavatam 1
vayam — we; tu — but; vitrpyamah — shall be at rest; uttama-sloka — the Personality of Godhead, who is glorified by transcendental prayers; vikrame — adventures; yat — which; srnvatam — by continuous hearing; rasa — humor; jnanam — those who are conversant with; svadu — relishing; svadu — palatable; pade pade — at every step. * Srimad-Bhagavatam 1
akhyahi — describe; hareh — of the Lord; dhiman — O sagacious one; avatara — incarnations; kathah — narratives; lila — adventures; vidadhatah — performed; svairam — pastimes; isvarasya — of the supreme controller; atma — personal; mayaya — energies. * Srimad-Bhagavatam 1
tasya — His; karmani — transcendental acts; udarani — magnanimous; parigitani — broadcast; suribhih — by the great souls; nah — unto us; sraddadhananam — ready to receive with respect; lilaya — pastimes; dadhatah — advented; kalah — incarnations. * Srimad-Bhagavatam 1
kah — who; va — rather; bhagavatah — of the Lord; tasya — His; sloka-idya — worshipable by prayers; karmanah — deeds; suddhi-kamah — desiring deliverance from all sins; srnuyat — does hear; yasah — glories; kali — of the age of quarrel; mala-apaham — the agent for sanctification. * Srimad-Bhagavatam 1
yat — whose; samsrayah — those who have taken shelter of; suta — O Suta Gosvami; munayah — great sages; prasamayanah — absorbed in devotion to the Supreme; sadyah — at once; punanti — sanctify; upasprstah — simply by association; svardhuni — of the sacred Ganges; apah — water; anusevaya — bringing into use. * Srimad-Bhagavatam 1

apannah — being entangled; samsrtim — in the hurdle of birth and death; ghoram — too complicated; yat — what; nama — the absolute name; vivasah — unconsciously; grnan — chanting; tatah — from that; sadyah — at once; vimucyeta — gets freedom; yat — that which; bibheti — fears; svayam — personally; bhayam — fear itself. * Srimad-Bhagavatam 1
tat — those; nah — unto us; susrusamananam — those who are endeavoring for; arhasi — ought to do it; anga — O Suta Gosvami; anuvarnitum — to explain by following in the footsteps of previous acaryas; yasya — whose; avatarah — incarnation; bhutanam — of the living beings; ksemaya — for good; bhavaya – upliftment
suta — O Suta Gosvami; janasi — you know; bhadram te — all blessings upon you; patih — the protector; devakyam — in the womb of Devaki; vasudevasya — by Vasudeva; jatah — born of; yasya — for the purpose of; cikirsaya — executing. * Srimad-Bhagavatam 1
bhurini — multifarious; bhuri — many; karmani — duties; srotavyani — to be learned; vibhagasah — by divisions of subject matter;
sadho — O sage; atra — herein; yat — whatever; samuddhrtya — by selection; manisaya — best to your knowledge; bhadraya — for the good of; bhutanam — the living beings; yena — by which; atma — the self; suprasidati — becomes fully satisfied. * Srimad-Bhagavatam 1
prayena — almost always; alpa — meager; ayusah — duration of life; sabhya — member of a learned society; kalau — in this age of Kali (quarrel); asmin — herein; yuge — age; janah — the public; mandah — lazy; sumanda-matayah — misguided; manda-bhagyah — unlucky; hi — and above all; upadrutah — disturbed. * Srimad-Bhagavatam 1
tatra — thereof; tatra — thereof; anjasa — made easy; ayusman — blessed with a long duration of life; bhavata — by your good self; yat — whatever; viniscitam — ascertained; pumsam — for the people in general; ekantatah — absolutely; sreyah — ultimate good; tat — that; nah — to us; samsitum — to explain; arhasi — deserve. * Srimad-Bhagavatam 1

yani — all that; veda-vidam — scholars of the Vedas; badarayanah — Vyasadeva; anye — others; munayah — the sages; suta — O Suta Gosvami; paravara-vidah — amongst the learned scholars, one who is conversant with physical and metaphysical knowledge; viduh — one who knows. * Srimad-Bhagavatam 1
rsayah — the sages; ucuh — said; tvaya — by you; khalu — undoubtedly; puranani — the supplements to the Vedas with illustrative narrations; sa-itihasani — along with the histories; anagha — freed from all vices; akhyatani — explained; api — although; adhitani — well read; dharma-sastrani — scriptures giving right directions to progressive life; yani — all these; uta — said. * Srimad-Bhagavatam 1
naimise — in the forest known as Naimisaranya; animisa-ksetre — the spot which is especially a favorite of Visnu (who does not close His eyelids); rsayah — sages; saunaka-adayah — headed by the sage Saunaka; satram — sacrifice; svargaya — the Lord who is glorified in heaven; lokaya — and for the devotees who are always in touch with the Lord; sahasra — one thousand; samam — years; asata — performed. * Srimad-Bhagavatam 1
mumuksavah — persons desiring liberation; ghora — horrible, ghastly; rupan — forms like that; hitva — rejecting; bhuta-patin — demigods; narayana — the Personality of Godhead; kalah — plenary portions; santah — all-blissful; bhajanti — do worship; anasuyavah — nonenvious.
vasudeva — the Personality of Godhead; parah — the ultimate goal; vedah — revealed scriptures; vasudeva — the Personality of Godhead; parah — for worshiping; makhah — sacrifices; vasudeva — the Personality of Godhead; parah — the means of attaining; yogah — mystic paraphernalia; vasudeva — the Personality of Godhead; parah — under His control; kriyah — fruitive activities; vasudeva — the Personality of Godhead; param — the supreme; vasudeva — the Personality of Godhead; param — best; tapah — austerity; vasudeva — the Personality of Godhead; parah — superior quality; dharmah — religion; vasudeva — the Personality of Godhead; parah — ultimate; gatih — goal of life.

taya — by them; vilasitesu — although in the function; esu — these; gunesu — the modes of material nature; gunavan — affected by the modes; iva — as if; antah — within; pravistah — entered into; abhati — appears to be; vijnanena — by transcendental consciousness; vijrmbhitah — fully enlightened. * Srimad-Bhagavatam 1

eva — certainly; idam — this; sasarja — created; agre — before;
atma-mayaya — by His personal potency;
sat — the cause; asat — the effect; rupaya — by forms; asau — the same Lord;
guna-maya — in the modes of material nature; agunah — transcendental; vibhuh — the Absolute. * Srimad-Bhagavatam 1

yatha — as much as; hi — exactly like; avahitah — surcharged with; vahnih — fire; darusu — in wood; ekah — one; sva-yonisu — the source of manifestation; nana iva — like different entities; bhati — illuminates; visva-atma — the Lord as Paramatma; bhutesu — in the living entities; tatha — in the same way; puman — the Absolute Person. * Srimad-Bhagavatam 1

asau — that Paramatma; guna-mayaih — influenced by the modes of nature; bhavaih — naturally; bhuta — created; suksma — subtle; indriya — senses; atmabhih — by the living beings; sva-nirmitesu — in His own creation; nirvistah — entering; bhunkte — causes to enjoy; bhutesu — in the living entities; tat-gunan — those modes of nature. * Srimad-Bhagavatam 1

bhavayati — maintains; esah — all these; sattvena — in the mode of goodness; lokan — all over the universe; vai — generally; loka-bhavanah — the master of all the universes; lila — pastimes; avatara — incarnation; anuratah — assuming the role; deva — the demigods; tiryak — lower animals; nara-adisu — in the midst of human beings. * Srimad-Bhagavatam 1

प्रया f. prayA run-up
प्रया f. prayA start-up
प्रायः adverb prAyaH by a snatch
प्रायः indecl. prAyaH perhaps
प्रायस् indecl. prAyas mostly
प्रयाण n. prayANa march
प्रयाण n. prayANa starting
प्रयाण n. prayANa invasion
प्रयाण n. prayANa departure
प्रयाण n. prayANa move-out
प्रयाण n. prayANa journey
प्रयाण n. prayANa setting out
प्रयास m. prayAsa difficulty
प्रयास m. prayAsa effort
प्रयास m. prayAsa endeavour
प्रयास m. prayAsa attempt
प्रयाति verb 1 prayAti { pra- yA } make tracks
प्रयाति verb 2 prayAti { pra- yA } depart
प्रयव m. prayava crith [(Gk. krithe a barley corn ) Physical Chem. a small weight] प्रायस्य adj. prAyasya prevalent
प्रयत्न m. prayatna endeavour
प्रयत्न m. prayatna effort
प्रयत्न m. prayatna labour
प्रयत्नात् adverb prayatnAt intentionally
प्रयत्नात् adverb prayatnAt willfully
प्रयत्नात् adverb prayatnAt deliberately
प्रयत्नात् adverb prayatnAt purposely
प्रयक्षति verb 1 prayakSati { pra- IkS } aspire
प्रयक्षति verb 1 prayakSati { pra- yakS } strive after
प्रयस्यति verb 4 Par prayasyati { pra- yas } strive
प्रयस्यति verb 4 Par prayasyati { pra- yas } endeavour
प्रयत्नेन adverb prayatnena willfully
प्रयत्नेन adverb prayatnena deliberately
प्रयत्नेन adverb prayatnena purposely
प्रयत्नेन adverb prayatnena intentionally
प्रयच्छति verb 1 prayacchati { pra- yam } give
प्रयापयति verb caus. prayApayati { pra- yA } send out
प्रायश्चित्त n. prAyazcitta atonement
सम्पथ-यान indecl. sampatha-yAna in most cases
प्रयत्नं करोमि expr. prayatnaM karomi I will try.
प्रयच्छति / -ते verb prayacchati / -te { prayam } hold out towards
प्रायश्चित्तं करोति verb 8 prAyazcittaM karoti atone
प्रायः तथा न स्यात् sent. prAyaH tathA na syAt By and large, it may not be so.
प्रायः तथा न स्यात् sent. prAyaH tathA na syAt probably it may not be so.
प्रायशः द्वितीयश्रेणी लभ्येत sent. prAyazaH dvitIyazreNI labhyeta Most probably, I will pass in II class.
त्वं प्रयतिष्यसे चेत् वर्धिष्यसे sent. tvaM prayatiSyase cet vardhiSyase If you try, you will improve
पुनरपि एकवारं प्रयत्नं कुर्मः sent. punarapi ekavAraM prayatnaM kurmaH Let us try once more.
यदा सः दोशां पक्तुं प्रयत्नं कुर्वन् आसीत्, तदा द्वारघण्टा जाता | sent. yadA saH dozAM paktuM prayatnaM kurvan AsIt, tadA dvAraghaNTA jAtA | When he was trying to make dosa, the door bell rang.
सः भाटकयानं स्वीकर्तुं प्रयत्नं कृतवान्, किन्तु तस्मिन् सः न फलितः | sent. saH bhATakayAnaM svIkartuM prayatnaM kRtavAn, kintu tasmin saH na phalitaH | He tried to hire a taxi, but he was no successful.
भोजनस्य अनन्तरम् सः भाटकयानं स्वीकर्तुं प्रयत्नं कृतवान् | किन्तु तत् अप्राप्य सः पादाभ्यां वसतिगृहं प्राप्तवान् | sent. bhojanasya anantaram saH bhATakayAnaM svIkartuM prayatnaM kRtavAn | kintu tat aprApya saH pAdAbhyAM vasatigRhaM prAptavAn | He tried to hire a cab after the dinner. He could not find one, so he walked back to the hotel.
प्राय adverb prAya all but
प्रया f. prayA onset
प्राय m. prAya going forth
प्राय m. prAya seeking death by fasting
प्राय m. prAya chief part
प्राय m. prAya largest portion
प्राय m. prAya stage of life
प्राय m. prAya course
प्राय m. prAya majority
प्राय m. prAya starting
प्राय m. prAya departure from life
प्राय m. prAya plenty
प्राय m. prAya age
प्राय m. prAya general rule
प्राय m. prAya race
प्राय m. prAya anything prominent
प्रायः adverb prAyaH nearly
प्रायः adverb prAyaH almost
प्रायः indecl. prAyaH about
प्रयज् f. prayaj oblation
प्रयज् f. prayaj offering
प्रयस् adj. prayas valuable
प्रयस् adj. prayas precious
प्रायस् adverb indecl. prAyas generally
प्रायस् ind. prAyas in all probability
प्रायस् ind. prAyas abundantly
प्रायस् ind. prAyas largely
प्रायस् ind. prAyas as a general rule
प्रायस् ind. prAyas likely
प्रायस् ind. prAyas commonly
प्रायस् ind. prAyas perhaps
प्रायस् ind. prAyas for the most part
प्रयस् n. prayas pleasant food or drink
प्रयस् n. prayas pleasure
प्रयस् n. prayas dainties
प्रयस् n. prayas enjoyment
प्रयस् n. prayas libations
प्रयस् n. prayas delight
प्रयस् n. prayas object of delight
प्रयाग m. prayAga sacrifice
प्रयाग m. prayAga
प्रयाग m. prayAga horse
प्रयाग m. prayAga place of sacrifice
प्रयाज m. prayAja preliminary offering
प्रयाज m. prayAja pre-sacrifice
प्रयाज m. prayAja principal ceremony or sacrifice
प्रयाम m. prayAma dearth
प्रयाम m. prayAma scarcity
प्रयाम m. prayAma extension

Glossary da trasferire
* Radha Krishna Ganoddesa Dipika

Abhimanyu: Sri Radha’s illusory husband, i.e. the person who is falsely identifying himself as Sri Radha’s husband
Abhinanda: Sri Nanda’s elder brother
Aindavi: Yasoda Mayi’s dear friend
Akunthita: a sakhi insistent upon arranging loving quarrels
Ambika: Sri Krishna’s wet nurse
Amoda-varddhana: Sri Krishna’s palace on top of Nandisvara Hill
Amritadohani: Sri Krishna’s milking pot
Amsumana: Sri Krishna’s priya-sakha
Anaka Dundubhi: another name for Vasudeva
Anandi: Sri Krishna’s suhrit-sakha
Ananga Manjari: a vara sakhi; Sri Radha and Sridama’s younger sister
Anangaranga-bhumi: the river Yamuna’s bank
Angada: a gopi like Sri Krishna’s mother
Anjana: a gopi like Sri Krishna’s mother
Antakela: a gopa like Sri Krishna’s maternal grandfather
Anuradha: another name of Sri Lalita
Arama: Campakalata’s father
Arjuna: Sri Krishna’s priya-narma-sakha
Arkamitra: another name of Vrisabhanu Maharaja
Arunaksha: Sanandana’s father
Atulya: Nandana’s wife

Bahula: Sri Radha’s cow
Bakula: Sri Krishna’s servant; takes care of His clothes
Balaka: Carumukha’s wife
Balarama (Baladeva): Sri Krishna’s elder brother
Balisa: Tungavidya’s husband
Bela: Indulekha’s mother
Bhadra: Arjuna’s mother
Bhadra: Sri Krishna’s pre-eminent beloved
Bhadrakirtti: Sri Radha’s maternal uncle
Bhadranga: a suhrit-sakha older than Sri Krishna
Bhadrasena: Sri Krishna’s priya-sakha
Bhadravarddhana: a suhrit-sakha older than Sri Krishna
Bhadrika: Sri Krishna’s beloved
Bhaguri: Sri Krishna’s purohita
Bhagyarasi: Sri Krishna’s ordinary servant; a sweeper
Bhagyavati: Sri Radha’s maidservant; daughter of a sweeper
Bhairava: Lalita-devi’s husband; Govardhana Gopa’s friend
Bhandira: Sri Krishna’s banyan tree
Bhangi: an elderly gopi like Sri Krishna’s paternal grandmother
Bhangura: Sri Krishna’s ceta-servant
Bhangura: an elderly gopi like Sri Krishna’s paternal grandmother
Bhanu: Sri Radha’s paternal uncle
Bhanumati: another name of Sri Rati Manjari and of Prema Manjari
Bhanumudra: Sri Radha’s father’s sister
Bharasakha: an elderly gopi like Sri Krishna’s paternal grandmother
Bharata: Sri Krishna’s ordinary servant; expert in composing literary works
Bharati: Sri Krishna’s beloved
Bharati-bandha: Sri Krishna’s vita-servant
Bhargavi: an elderly brahmani, venerable in Vraja
Bharunda: an elderly gopi like Sri Krishna’s maternal grandmother
Bharuni: an elderly gopi like Sri Krishna’s paternal grandmother
Bhata: a suhrit-sakha older than Sri Krishna
Bhela: an elderly gopi like Sri Krishna’s maternal grandmother
Bhogini: a gopi like Sri Krishna’s mother
Bhramaraka: Sri Krishna’s pet dog
Bhringa: a gopa like Sri Krishna’s father
Bhringara: Sri Krishna’s ceta-servant
Bhringari: Sri Krishna’s ceti-maidservant
Bhringarika: Sri Radha’s maidservant
Bhringi: a Pulinda girl
Bhuvana-mohini: Sri Krishna’s vamsi; also named Mahananda
Bimbini: a gopi like Sri Krishna’s mother
Bindula: Sri Radha’s maidservant; carries Her possessions
Bindumati: a sakhi who arranges meetings between Sri Radha and Sri Krishna

Cakkini: an elderly gopi like Sri Krishna’s maternal grandmother
Cakorakshi: Sri Krishna’s beloved
Cakranga: a gopa like Sri Krishna’s father
Camara-damari: the decoration on Sri Krishna’s crown
Campakalata: the third of Sri Radha’s eight principal sakhis
Candaksa: Campakalata’s husband
Candana: a sakha younger than Sri Krishna
Candanakala: Sri Krishna’s maidservant
Candanavati: Sri Radha’s nitya-sakhi
Candrabhanu: Vrinda’s father
Candrahasa: Sri Krishna’s dancer
Candrakala: Paurnamasi’s mother
Candralatika: a sakhi serving under Campakalata
Candralatika: Sri Radha’s priya-sakhi
Candramukha: Sri Krishna’s dancer
Candrarekha: a sakhi serving under Visakha
Candrarekha: Sri Radha’s prana-sakhi
Candrarekhika: a sakhi serving under Visakha
Candrasalika: Sri Krishna’s beloved
Candravali: Sri Krishna’s beloved belonging to Sri Radha’s rival-group
Candrika: a sakhi serving under Campakalata
Candrika: one of Sri Radha’s eight sakhis according to the Sammohana Tantra
Candrika: Sri Radha’s priya-sakhi
Cankana: Sri Krishna’s bangles
Capala: a sakhi serving under Visakha
Carana: Sri Krishna’s foremost male spy
Carcika: Citra’s mother
Cari: a female messenger who zealously arranges loving quarrels
Carucandi: a sakhi insistent upon arranging loving quarrels; Sitakhandi’s sister
Caru-candrika: Sri Radha’s female cakori bird
Carukavara: a sakhi serving under Sudevi
Carumukha: Sumukha’s younger brother
Catakarava: Sri Radha’s golden anklets
Catu: the son of Sri Nanda’s uncle Rajanya
Catura: Citra’s father
Catura: Sri Krishna’s foremost male spy
Chalikya: Sri Radha’s favourite dance
Citra: the fourth of Sri Radha’s eight principal sakhis
Citrakoraka: Sri Krishna’s ball
Citrarekha: a sakhi serving under Indulekha
Citrini: a maidservant who decorates Sri Radha
Condika: an elderly gopi like Sri Krishna’s maternal grandmother
Cuda (Cudavali): a female messenger who zealously arranges loving quarrels
Cundari: a female messenger who zealously arranges loving quarrels
Cundi: an elderly gopi like Sri Krishna’s maternal grandmother
Dadhilobha: Sri Krishna’s monkey
Dadhisara: Catu’s wife; Sri Krishna’s maternal aunt; also named Yasodevi
Daksha: Sri Krishna’s male parrot
Dakshina: Visakha’s mother
Dama: Sri Krishna’s priya-sakha
Damani: an elderly gopi like Sri Krishna’s maternal grandmother
Damari: an elderly gopi like Sri Krishna’s maternal grandmother
Dandava: Upananda’s son
Dandi: a gopa like Sri Krishna’s father
Dandi: Sri Krishna’s paternal cousin
Danka: an elderly gopi like Sri Krishna’s maternal grandmother
Devaki: Sri Vasudeva’s wife and Sri Yasoda’s dear friend
Devaki: another name of Sri Yasoda
Devaprastha: a sakha younger than Sri Krishna
Devaprastha: Paurnamasi’s brother
Dhamani-dhara: a gopi like Sri Krishna’s mother
Dhanasri: Sri Radha’s favourite raga
Dhanishtha: a sakhi serving under Lalita
Dhanishtha: Sri Krishna’s maidservant; lives in Nanda Maharaja’s palace
Dhanyadhanya: Sikhavati’s father
Dhataki: Sri Radha’s maternal aunt
Dhatri: Sri Radha’s maternal aunt
Dhiman: Sri Krishna’s foremost male spy
Dhurina: a gopa like Sri Krishna’s father
Dhurva: a gopa like Sri Krishna’s father
Dindima: an elderly gopi like Sri Krishna’s maternal grandmother
Dipana: Sri Krishna’s ordinary servant; takes care of His lanterns
Divyasakti: a suhrit-sakha older than Sri Krishna
Drishtimohana: Sri Krishna’s tilaka
Dumbi: an elderly gopi like Sri Krishna’s maternal grandmother
Durlabha: Sri Krishna’s ordinary servant; washes His clothes
Durmada: Ananga Manjari’s husband; Sri Radha’s younger brother-in-law
Durvala: Indulekha’s husband
Gandha Manjari: Sri Radha’s manjari
Gandharva: Sri Krishna’s priya-narma-sakha
Gandharva: a name of Sri Radha
Gandhaveda: Sri Krishna’s vita-servant
Ganga: Sri Krishna’s dear cow
Garga Muni: a priest of the Yadu-dynasty
Gargi: wife of one of Sri Krishna’s purohitas
Gargi: Garga Muni’s daughter; a prominent brahmani
Garjara: Sikhavati’s husband; also known as Garuda
Garuda: Sikhavati’s husband; also known as Garjara
Gaudi: Sri Krishna’s favourite raga
Gauri (Sakhi): another name of Sitakhandi
Gauri: one of Sri Radha’s eight sakhis according to the Sammohana Tantra
Gauri: Sri Radha’s maternal aunt
Gautami: wife of one of Sri Krishna’s purohitas
Ghanta: an elderly gopi like Sri Krishna’s maternal grandmother
Gharghara: an elderly gopi like Sri Krishna’s maternal grandmother
Ghatika: a gopa like Sri Krishna’s father
Ghobhata: a suhrit-sakha older than Sri Krishna
Ghoni: an elderly gopi like Sri Krishna’s maternal grandmother
Ghora: an elderly gopi like Sri Krishna’s maternal grandmother
Ghrini: a gopa like Sri Krishna’s father
Gola: Jatila’s husband; Sri Radha’s father-in-law; also named Vrika Gopa
Gonda: a gopa like Sri Krishna’s maternal grandfather
Gondika: a female messenger who zealously arranges loving quarrels
Gopali: Sri Krishna’s beloved
Govardhana Gopa: Bhairava’s friend
Grahila: Sri Krishna’s ceta-servant
Gunacuda: a sakhi serving under Tungavidya
Gunacuda: Sri Radha’s priya-sakhi
Gunamala: Sri Krishna’s maidservant; lives in Nanda Maharaja’s palace
Guna Manjari: Sri Radha’s manjari
Gunatunga: Sri Radha’s gandharva-sakhi
Gunavati: Sri Krishna’s beloved
Gunavira: Suverjana’s husband
Gurjari: Sri Krishna’s favourite raga

Hamsaganjana: Sri Krishna’s ankle bells
Hamsi: Sri Krishna’s dear cow
Hara: a gopa like Sri Krishna’s father
Hara: Sri Krishna’s servant; prepares fragrant substances
Harahira: a sakhi serving under Sudevi
Harakanthi: a sakhi serving under Sudevi
Haravali: Sri Krishna’s beloved
Harikesa: a gopa like Sri Krishna’s father
Hari-manohara: Sri Radha’s necklace
Harini: a sakhi serving under Visakha
Harita: a gopa like Sri Krishna’s father
Hasanka: Sri Krishna’s priya-narma-sakha; a vidusaka
Havihsara: Vatuka’s wife; Sri Krishna’s maternal aunt; also named Yasasvini
Hema Manjari: Sri Radha’s manjari
Hingula: a gopi like Sri Krishna’s mother
Hiranyangi: a vara sakhi
Hridaya-modana: the medallion on Sri Krishna’s chest

Indira: a sakhi serving under Rangadevi
Indravali: Sri Krishna’s beloved
Indu: Sri Radha’s maternal grandfather; Mukhara’s husband
Induhasa: Sri Krishna’s dancer
Induprabha: Sri Krishna’s maidservant
Indulekha: the sixth of Sri Radha’s eight principal sakhis

Jambula: Sri Krishna’s servant; prepares His tambula
Jaradgava: Hiranyangi’s husband
Jatila: Sri Radha’s mother-in-law
Jatila: an elderly gopi like Sri Krishna’s maternal grandmother

Kadamba-raja: Sri Krishna’s kadamba tree
Kadambari: Sri Radha’s prana-sakhi
Kadara: Ratnalekha’s husband
Kadara: Sri Krishna’s vita-servant
Kairavi: Sri Krishna’s beloved
Kakkhati: Sri Radha’s old female monkey
Kalabhashini: Sri Radha’s prana-sakhi
Kalahamsi: a sakhi serving under Lalita
Kalajhankara: Sri Krishna’s waist belt
Kalakandala: Sri Radha’s maidservant; carries Her possessions
Kalakantha: Sri Krishna’s ordinary servant; expert in composing literary works
Kalakanthi: a sakhi serving under Rangadevi
Kalakanthi: a sakhi insistent upon arranging loving quarrels
Kalakanthi: Sri Radha’s gandharva-sakhi
Kalakeli: Sri Radha’s maidservant
Kalankura: a gopa like Sri Krishna’s father
Kalankura: Kalavati’s father
Kalapini: a sakhi serving under Lalita
Kalasvana: Sri Krishna’s swan
Kalavati: a vara sakhi
Kalavati: one of Sri Radha’s eight sakhis mentioned in another part of the Sammohana Tantra
Kalavinka: Sri Krishna’s priya-sakha
Kalinda: a sakha younger than Sri Krishna
Kalitippani: a female messenger who zealously arranges loving quarrels
Kallotta: a gopa like Sri Krishna’s maternal grandfather
Kamada: Sri Radha’s maidservant; the daughter of a wet nurse; has a special friendship with Sri Radha
Kamala: a sakhi serving under Rangadevi
Kamala: Sri Krishna’s beloved
Kamala: Sri Radha’s priya-sakhi
Kamalatika: a sakhi serving under Rangadevi
Kamalatika: Sri Radha’s priya-sakhi
Kamalini: Phullakalika’s mother

Kama-mahatirtha: Sri Krishna’s grove at Pavana-sarovara

Kama Manjari: Sri Radha’s manjari

Kamanagari: a sakhi serving under Citra

Kamsa: a demon inimical to Sri Krishna

Kamvala: a gopa like Sri Krishna’s father

Kancana-citrangi: Sri Radha’s waist belt

Kandarpa-kuhali: Sri Radha’s garden
Kandarpa Manjari: a vara sakhi
Kandarpa Manjari: Sri Krishna’s beloved
Kandarpa-sundari: a sakhi serving under Rangadevi
Kandarpa-sundari: Sri Radha’s priya-sakhi
Kandava: the son of Upananda
Kanthola: Sri Krishna’s servant; a craftsman
Kantida: a female messenger who arranges meetings [between Sri Radha and Sri Krishna] Kapila: Sri Krishna’s servant; prepares His tambula
Kapila: a gopi like Sri Krishna’s mother
Kapota: Kalavati’s husband
Karala: an elderly gopi like Sri Krishna’s maternal grandmother
Karanda: a gopa like Sri Krishna’s maternal grandfather
Karanda: Sri Krishna’s servant; a craftsman
Karandhama: a sakha younger than Sri Krishna
Karavalika: an elderly gopi like Sri Krishna’s maternal grandmother
Karmatha: Sri Krishna’s potter
Karpura: Sri Krishna’s hairdresser
Karpuralatika: Sri Radha’s prana-sakhi
Karuna: Rangadevi and Sudevi’s mother
Kasa: Bhanumudra’s husband
Kasturi: Sri Radha’s nitya-sakhi
Kasturi Manjari: Sri Radha’s manjari
Katula: Sri Krishna’s servant; a craftsman
Katyayani: a female messenger older than Sri Radha
Kaumudi: one of Sri Radha’s eight sakhis mentioned in another part of the Sammohana Tantra
Kaumudi: Sri Radha’s nitya-sakhi
Kaustubha: Sri Krishna’s jewel; offered to Him by the wives of the Kaliya snake
Kavala: Vira’s husband
Kavala: Vira’s sister
Kaverimukha (Kaveri): a sakhi serving under Sudevi
Kedara: a gopa like Sri Krishnas father
Kelikandali: Sri Radhas prana-sakhi
Keli Manjari: Sri Krishnas beloved
Kesi: the horse demon
Khanjanekshana: Sri Krishnas beloved
Khela-tirtha: a grove which is the most sacred abode at Sri Yamuna
Kila: a gopa like Sri Krishna’s maternal grandfather
Kilimba: Sri Krishna’s wet nurse
Kinkini: Sri Krishna’s priya-sakha
Kirtticandra: Sri Radha’s maternal uncle
Kirttida: Sri Yasoda’s dear friend
Kirttida: Sri Radha’s mother; also known as Ratnagarbha; Sridama and Ananga Manjari’s mother
Kirttimati: Sri Radha’s mother’s sister
Kokila: Sri Krishna’s priya-narma-sakha
Komala: Sri Krishna’s servant; takes care of His plate, etc.
Komala: Sri Krishna’s servant; prepares His tambula
Kotara: a female messenger who zealously arranges loving quarrels
Krida-giri: another name of Giriraja-Govardhana
Kripa: a gopi like Sri Krishna’s mother
Kripita: a gopa like Sri Krishna’s maternal grandfather
Krishna — mentioned throughout the book — the crest-jewel of heroes described in this book
Krishna: Sri Krishna’s beloved
Kubjika: an elderly brahmani, venerable in Vraja
Kucari: Cari’s sister
Kulavira: a suhrit-sakhas older than Sri Krishna
Kulika: a sakha younger than Sri Krishna
Kumuda: Sri Krishna’s beloved
Kunda: Sri Krishna’s servant; a craftsman
Kunda: a sakha younger than Sri Krishna
Kundala: Sri Krishna’s paternal cousin
Kundalata: the wife of Upananda’s son Subhadra
Kundalatika: Sikhavati’s elder sister
Kunjari: a sakhi serving under Visakha
Kunkuma: Sri Krishna’s beloved
Kurangakshi: a sakhi serving under Campakalata
Kurangakshi: Sri Radha’s priya-sakhi
Kurangi: Sri Krishna’s ceti-maidservant
Kuruvinda: Kandarpa Manjari’s mother
Kuruvinda-nibha: Sri Radha’s cloth; red colour
Kusa: Kirttimati’s husband
Kusuma: Sri Krishna’s hairdresser
Kusumapesala: a sakhi pleasing Sri Krishna with her music
Kutera: a gopa like Sri Krishna’s paternal grandfather
Lila Manjari: Sri Radha’s manjari
Mali: Sri Krishna’s ceta-servant
Mallara: Sri Radha’s favourite raga
Malli: a Pulinda girl
Mallika: Sanandana’s mother
Mana: Sri Krishna’s ceta-servant
Mandala: Sri Krishna’s paternal cousin
Mandalibhadra: a suhrit-sakha older than Sri Krishna
Mandana: Sri Krishna’s staff
Mandara: a sakha younger than Sri Krishna
Mandara: a small, bejewelled room inside Kama-mahatirtha
Mandraghosha: Sri Krishna’s horn [used as a bugling instrument] Mangala: a gopa like Sri Krishna’s father
Mangala: Sri Krishna’s servant; prepares His tambula
Mangala: Sri Krishna’s dear cow
Mangala: Sri Krishna’s beloved
Mangala: a sakhi belonging to Sri Radha’s suhrit-paksha
Manibandha: a sakha younger than Sri Krishna
Manikandali: a cave at Govardhana
Manikarbura: the jewels beautifying Sri Radha’s armlets
Manikastani: Sri Krishna’s dear cow
Maniki: a sakhi who is pleasing Sri Krishna with her music
Manikundala: a sakhi serving under Campakalata
Manikundala: Sri Radha’s priya-sakhi
Mani Manjari: Sri Radha’s nitya-sakhi
Mani Manjari: Sri Radha’s manjari
Manimati: Sri Radha’s prana-sakhi
Manjari: Vrinda’s sister
Manjishtha: Sri Radha’s maidservant; daughter of a washerman
Manjubhashini: Sri Krishna’s beloved
Manjukesi: Sri Radha’s priya-sakhi
Manjukesika: a sakhi serving under Sudevi
Manjula: Sri Radha’s maidservant
Manjula: Sri Radha’s maidservant; carries Her possessions
Manjulasara: the string on Sri Krishna’s golden bow
Manjumedha: a sakhi serving under Tungavidya
Manjumedha: Sri Radha’s priya-sakhi
Manohara: a sakhi serving under Sudevi
Manojna: Sri Radha’s nitya-sakhi
Manorama: Sri Krishna’s messenger
Manorama: Sri Krishna’s beloved
Mantriki: Sri Radha’s maidservant; knowledgeable in astrology
Marunda: a female messenger who zealously arranges loving quarrels
Maskara: a gopa like Sri Krishna’s father
Masrina: a gopi like Sri Krishna’s mother
Matalli: a Pulinda girl
Mathara: a gopa like Sri Krishna’s father
Matuka: Sudama and Vidagdha’s father
Mecika: a sakhis insistent upon arranging loving quarrels
Medha: Tungavidya’s mother
Medha: Kokila’s mother
Medura: a gopi like Sri Krishna’s mother
Meghambara: Sri Radha’s cloth, blue like a cloud
Mela: a female messenger (duti)
Menaka: Sri Radha’s maternal aunt
Mitra: a gopi like Sri Krishna’s mother
Mitra: Ratnalekha’s mother; Payonidhi’s wife
Mitra: Gandharva’s mother
Modani: a sakhi serving under indulekha
Mohini: Vira’s mother
Morata: a female messenger who zealously arranges loving quarrels
Mridula: Sri Radha’s maidservant; carries Her possessions
Mukhara: a friend of Sri Krishna’s maternal grandmother; she breastfed Yasoda; Sri Radha’s maternal grandmother
Mukhara: an elderly gopi like Sri Krishna’s maternal grandmother
Murali: a female messenger (duti)

Nagari: a sakhi serving under Citra
Nagavenika: a sakhi serving under Citra
Nalini: Sri Radha’s maidservant; daughter of a barber
Nanda Maharaja: Sri Krishna’s father; the middle one of Parjanya’s sons; Vasudeva’s friend
Nanda: one of Sri Radha’s eight sakhis according to the Sammohana Tantra
Nandana: Nanda Maharaja’s younger brother
Nandi: Sri Krishna’s suhrit-sakha
Nandimukhi: Sri Krishna’s female messenger; Madhumangala’s sister
Nandini: Sri Krishna’s paternal aunt
Narmada: a sakhi who is pleasing Sri Krishna with her music
Narmada: Sri Radha’s golden hairpin
Nava-ratna-vidamba: Sri Krishna’s peacock feather crown
Netra Manjari: Sri Radha’s manjari
Nigama-sobhana: Sri Krishna’s yellow cloth
Nilamandapika: a ghata at Govardhana
Niti: a gopi like Sri Krishna’s mother
Nitisara: Sri Krishna’s messenger

Ojasvi: a sakha younger than Sri Krishna

Padma: Sri Krishna’s beloved belonging to Candravali’s group
Padmagandha: Sri Krishna’s bull
Padma Manjari: Sri Radha’s manjari
Pakshati: a gopi like Sri Krishna’s mother
Palika: Sri Krishna’s beloved
Palindhika: a sakhi serving under Indulekha
Palindri: a maidservant who dresses and decorates Sri Radha
Pallava: Sri Krishna’s servant; prepares His tambula
Pankajakshi: a sakhi serving under Campakalata
Paranga-ghata: a ghata at Manasa-ganga
Parjanya: Sri Krishna’s paternal grandfather
Pasu-vasikara: the two ropes Sri Krishna uses when milking
Pataka: a gopi like Sri Krishna’s mother
Patala: Sri Krishna’s maternal grandmother
Patraka: Sri Krishna’s ceta-servant
Pattisa: a gopa like Sri Krishna’s father
Pesala: Sri Krishna’s foremost male spy
Petari: a female messenger who zealously arranges loving quarrels
Phulla: Sri Krishna’s servant; prepares His tambula
Phullakalika: a vara sakhi
Phullara: Vrinda’s mother
Pikakanthi: Sri Radha’s gandharva-sakhi
Pindakeli: a sakhi insistent upon arranging loving quarrels
Pindakeli: a female messenger who zealously arranges loving quarrels
Pinga: a gopa like Sri Krishna’s father
Pingala: a gopa like Sri Krishna’s father
Pingala: Vasanta’s father
Pingala: Sri Krishna’s dear cow
Pisangaksha: Sri Krishna’s bull
Pisangi: Sri Krishna’s dear cow
Pisangi: Sri Radha’s maidservant; carries Her possessions
Pitha: a gopa like Sri Krishna’s father
Pithara: Citra’s husband
Pivari: Abhinanda’s wife
Prabala: Paurnamasi’s husband
Prabha: a gopi like Sri Krishna’s mother
Prabhakari: the pearl in Sri Radha’s nose
Praghara: a brahmana sheltered in Sri Krishna’s paternal family
Praguna: Sri Krishna’s servant; takes care of the store-rooms
Premakanda: Sri Krishna’s servant; decorates Him
Prema Manjari: a sakhi serving under Rangadevi
Prema Manjari: Sri Radha’s priya-sakhi
Prema Manjari: Sri Radha’s manjari; also known as Bhanumati
Premavati: a sakhi who pleases Sri Krishna with her music
Priyamvada: Sri Radha’s prana-sakhi
Priyankara: Sri Krishna’s priya-sakha
Pundarika: a sakhi insistent upon arranging loving quarrels
Pundarika: Sri Krishna’s priya-sakha
Pundavanika: an elderly gopi like Sri Krishna’s maternal grandmother
Pundi: a gopi like Sri Krishna’s mother
Punjapunya: Sri Radha’s maidservant; daughter of a sweeper
Punyapunja: Sri Krishna’s ordinary servant; a sweeper
Purata: a gopa like Sri Krishna’s paternal grandfather
Purata: a gopa like Sri Krishna’s maternal grandfather
Pushkara: Tungavidya’s father
Pushkara: Kokila’s father
Pushpahasa: Sri Krishna’s servant; prepares fragrant substances
Pushpakara: Kandarpa Manjari’s father
Pushpanka: Sri Krishna’s priya-narma-sakha; a vidusaka

Radha: — mentioned throughout the book — the most prominent beloved of Sri Krishna; the pinnacle of all sweet transcendental qualities
Radha-kunda: Sri Radha’s pond
Ragalekha: Sri Radha’s maidservant
Raga Manjari: Sri Radha’s manjari
Ragavalli: Sri Krishna’s gunja-necklace
Rajanya: Sri Krishna’s father’s paternal uncle
Raktaka: Sri Krishna’s ceta-servant
Ramaci: a sakhi insitent upon arranging loving quarrels; the daughter of Lalita-devi’s wet nurse
Rambha: Sri Krishna’s maidservant
Ramini: a sakhi serving under Citra
Ranasthira: a suhrit-sakha older than Sri Krishna
Rangada: Sri Krishna’s armlets
Rangadevi: the seventh of Sri Radha’s eight principal sakhis
Rangana: Sri Krishna’s jeweller
Rangaraga: Sri Radha’s maidservant; daughter of a washerman
Rangasara: Rangadevi and Sudevi’s father
Rangavali: a sakhi serving under Visakha
Rangavati: a sakhi serving under indulekha
Rangini: Sri Radha’s doe
Ranjana: Sri Krishna’s ordinary servant; washes His clothes
Rasala: Sri Krishna’s servant; prepares His tambula
Rasala: Sri Radha’s maidservant
Rasalika: a sakhi serving under Citra
Rasa Manjari: Sri Radha’s manjari
Rasasali: Sri Krishna’s servant; prepares His tambula
Rasavati: one of Sri Radha’s eight sakhis mentioned in another part of the Sammohana Tantra
Rasollasa: Sri Radha’s gandharva-sakhi
Rasottunga: a sakhi serving under indulekha
Ratika: a sakhi serving under Lalita
Ratikala: a sakhi serving under Lalita
Rati Manjari: Sri Radha’s manjari; also known as Bhanumati
Ratiprabha: Sri Krishna’s maidservant
Ratir-agadhi-daivata: Sri Krishna’s makara-shaped earrings (kundalas)
Ratnabhanu: Sri Radha’s paternal uncle
Ratnabhava: a group of sakhis mentioned in the Sammohana Tantra
Ratnagarbha: another name of Kirttida
Ratna-gopura: Sri Radha’s ankle bells
Ratnalekha: a vara sakhi; Payonidhi’s daughter
Ratna Manjari: Sri Radha’s manjari
Ratnamukhi: Sri Krishna’s signet ring
Ratnapara: Sri Krishna’s crown
Ratnaprabha: a sakhi serving under Lalita
Ratnavali: Sri Radha’s prana-sakhi
Raucika: Sri Krishna’s expert tailor
Ravimitra: another name of Vrisabhanu Maharaja
Rema: Yasodhara’s wife; Pavana’s paternal cousin
Rocana: Sri Radha’s jewelled earrings (tadanka)
Rocana: Sudama and Vidagdha’s mother
Rohini: Sri Krishna’s elder mother, Sri Balarama’s mother
Roma: Yasodeva’s wife; Pavana’s paternal cousin
Rudra-vallaki: Sri Radha’s favourite vina
Rupa Manjari: Sri Radha’s manjari

Sada-santa: a female messenger who arranges meetings
Sadasmera: Sri Krishna’s pastime lotus
Sadhika: one of Sri Radha’s eight sakhis according to the Sammohana Tantra
Sagara: Indulekha’s father
Sagara: Ujjvala’s father
Saibya: Sri Krishna’s beloved
Sairindhra: Sri Krishna’s servant; decorates Him
Salika: Sri Krishna’s ceta-servant
Sallaki: a gopi like Sri Krishna’s mother
Samadheni: the wife of one of Sri Krishna’s family brahmanas
Sananda: Nanda Maharaja’s younger brother; also called Sunanda
Sananda: Sri Krishna’s ordinary servant; plays the mridanga
Sananda: Sri Krishna’s paternal aunt
Sanandana: Sri Krishna’s priya-narma-sakha
Sandha: Sri Radha’s maidservant; carries Her possessions
Sandhika: Sri Krishna’s ceta-servant
Sandili: an elderly brahmani, venerable in Vraja
Sandipani Muni: Paurnamasi’s son; Sri Krishna’s teacher; Madhumangala and Nandimukhi’s father
Sangara: a gopa like Sri Krishna’s father
Sankara: a gopa like Sri Krishna’s father
Sankari: Sri Krishna’s beloved
Sankini: a gopi like Sri Krishna’s mother
Santida: a female messenger who arranges meetings
Sarada: Sri Krishna’s ordinary servant; expert in composing literary works
Sarada: one of Sri Radha’s eight sakhis mentioned in another part of the Sammohana Tantra
Saradakshi: Sri Krishna’s beloved
Saradi: Vasanta’s mother
Saradi: Lalita’s mother
Saradindu: Sri Krishna’s mirror
Saragha: a gopa like Sri Krishna’s father
Sarala: Sri Krishna’s murali
Saranga: Sri Krishna’s servant; takes care of His clothes
Sarangi: Sri Krishna’s beloved
Sarasa: Sri Krishna’s ordinary servant; expert in composing literary works
Sari: Sri Krishna’s beloved
Sarika: a gopi like Sri Krishna’s mother
Sarvi: wife of one of Sri Krishna’s purohitas
Sasikala: a sakhi serving under Rangadevi
Sasikala: Sri Radha’s priya-sakhi
Sasimukhi: Sri Radha’s prana-sakhi
Shashthi: Sri Radha’s maternal aunt
Saubhagyamani: a jewel dangling on Sri Radha’s chest
Saudha: a gopa like Sri Krishna’s father
Saumya-darsana: a female messenger who arranges meetings
Saurabheya: a gopa like Sri Krishna’s father
Sauraseni: a sakhi serving under Citra
Sikha: an elderly gopi like Sri Krishna’s paternal grandmother
Sikhambara: an elderly gopi like Sri Krishna’s paternal grandmother
Sikhavati: a vara sakhi; Kundalatika’s younger sister
Silabheri: an elderly gopi like Sri Krishna’s paternal grandmother
Sindhumati: Kalavati’s mother
Sindura: Sri Radha’s nitya-sakhi
Sitakhandi: a sakhi insistent upon arranging loving quarrels; another name of Gauri Sakhi
Siva: Sri Krishna’s beloved
Sivada: a female messenger who arranges meetings
Smara-yantra: Sri Radha’s tilaka
Smaroddhura: Sri Radha’s gandharva-sakhi
Sobha: Sri Krishna’s maidservant
Sobhana: Sri Krishna’s ordinary servant; takes care of His lanterns
Sridama: Sri Krishna’s priya-sakha; Sri Radha’s brother
Srimati: one of Sri Radha’s eight sakhis mentioned in another part of the Sammohana Tantra
Stoka-krishna: Sri Krishna’s priya-sakha
Subala: Sri Krishna’s priya-narma-sakha
Subandha: Sri Krishna’s hairdresser

Subhada: a suhrit-sakha older than Sri Krishna
Subhada: a gopi like Sri Krishna’s mother
Subhadra: Sri Krishna’s paternal cousin; a suhrit-sakha
Subhadra: a sakhi serving under Lalita
Subhadra: Sri Balarama’s sister
Subhaga: a gopi like Sri Krishna’s mother
Subhanana: a sakhi serving under Visakha

kila — certainly; kila — definitely; kila — what;

Subhanu: Sri Radha’s paternal uncle
Sucandra: Hiranyangi and Stoka-krishna’s mother
Sucarita: a sakhi serving under Campakalata
Sucaru: Carumukha’s son
Sucitra: Sri Krishna’s artist; paints colourful pictures
Sucitra: another name for Citra
Sudakshina: Arjuna’s father
Sudama: Sri Krishna’s priya-sakha; Vidagdha’s brother
Sudantika: a sakhi insistent upon arranging loving quarrels
Sumukhi: Madhumangala and Nandimukhi’s mother
Sunanda: another name of Sananda, Nanda Maharaja’s younger brother
Sunanda: Sri Krishna’s suhrit-sakha
Sunila: the husband of Sri Krishna’s paternal aunt Nandini
Supaksha: a gopa like Sri Krishna’s father
Suprasada: a female messenger who arranges meetings
Suprema: same as Prema Manjari
Surabhi: a sakhi serving under Visakha
Suranga: Sri Krishna’s deer
Surangi: the mother of the doe Rangini and of Hiranyangi
Suraprabha: a suhrit-sakha older than Sri Krishna
Suratadeva: Paurnamasi’s father
Surema: Sudeva’s wife; Pavana’s paternal cousin
Suryamitra: another name of Vrisabhanu Maharaja
Suryasahvaya: another name of Vrisabhanu Maharaja
Susangata: a sakhi serving under Indulekha
Susikha: Sikhavati’s mother
Susila: Sri Krishna’s servant; takes care of the store-rooms
Susila: Sudama and Vidagdha’s sister
Sutunda: a gopi like Sri Krishna’s mother
Suvarna Manjari: Sri Radha’s manjari
Suvilasa: Sri Krishna’s servant; prepares His tambula
Suvilasatara: a boat at Paranga-ghata
Suverjana: the sister of Sri Krishna’s paternal grand-father; also named Nati
Svaccha: Sri Krishna’s servant; takes care of the store-rooms
Svadha: an elderly brahmani, venerable in Vraja
Svadhakara: a brahmana sheltered in Sri Krishna’s paternal family
Svastida: Sri Radha’s jewel-studded comb
Syama: Sri Krishna’s beloved
Syamala: Sri Krishna’s pre-eminent beloved
Syamala: a sakhi belonging to Sri Radha’s suhrit-paksha
Syamantaka: Sri Radha’s jewel; also named Sankhacuda-siromani

Tadid-valli: the vine of golden jasmines in Sri Radha’s garden
Taditprabha: Sri Krishna’s jewelled beads
Tali: a gopi like Sri Krishna’s mother
Talika: Sri Krishna’s ceta-servant
Tandavika: Sri Krishna’s peacock
Tankana: Sri Krishna’s jeweller
Tantriki: Sri Radha’s maidservant; knowledgeable in astrology
Tanumadhya: a sakhi serving under Tungavidya
Tanumadhyama: Sri Radha’s priya-sakhi
Tara: Sri Krishna’s beloved
Taralakshi: Sri Krishna’s beloved
Taralika: a gopi like Sri Krishna’s mother
Tarangakshi: a gopi like Sri Krishna’s mother
Tarangini: Sri Krishna’s vina
Taravali: Sri Krishna’s necklace
Taravali: Sri Krishna’s beloved

Ujjvala: Sri Krishna’s priya-narma- sakha
Upananda: Nanda Maharaja’s elder brother
Upananda: a gopa like Sri Krishna’s father
Urjanya: Sri Krishna’s father’s paternal uncle
Utpala: a gopa like Sri Krishna’s father

Vahika: Visakha’s husband
Vaijayanti-mala: Sri Krishna’s garland made of five different coloured flowers
Vakrekshana: Rangadevi’s husband; younger brother of Bhairava
Vamani: an elderly brahmani, venerable in Vraja
Vamsi: Sri Krishna’s female messenger
Vamsipriya: Sri Krishna’s dear cow
Vanamala: Sri Krishna’s garland made of many different types of flowers and leaves hanging down to His feet
Varangada: a sakhi serving under Tungavidya
Varangada: Sri Radha’s priya-sakhi
Vararoha: a gopa like Sri Krishna’s maternal grandfather
Varddhaki: Sri Krishna’s carpenter
Varddhamana: Sri Krishna’s carpenter
Varida: Sri Krishna’s servant; supplies water for His use
Varishana: a gopa like Sri Krishna’s maternal grandfather
Variyasi: Sri Krishna’s paternal grandmother
Varttika: a gopi like Sri Krishna’s mother
Varudi: a female messenger who zealously arranges loving quarrels
Varuthapa: a sakha younger than Sri Krishna
Vasanta: Sri Krishna’s priya-narma-sakha
Vasanti: Sri Radha’s prana-sakhi
Vashatkara: a brahmana sheltered in Sri Krishna’s paternal family
Vasudama: Sri Krishna’s priya-sakha; Arjuna’s elder brother
Vasudeva: Sri Nanda Maharaja’s friend; another name is Anaka Dundubhi; a partial manifestation of a Vasu named Drona; Sri Balarama’s father
Vatika: Campakalata’s mother
Vatsala: a gopi like Sri Krishna’s mother
Vatuka: Ranjanya’s son
Vavaduka: Sri Krishna’s messenger
Vedagarbha: Sri Krishna’s purohita
Vedika: wife of one of Sri Krishna’s family brahmanas
Vena: a gopi like Sri Krishna’s mother
Veni: Ujjvala’s mother
Vicakshana: Sri Krishna’s male parrot
Vicitra: Sri Krishna’s artist; paints colourful pictures
Vicitra: Sri Krishna’s beloved
Vicitrangi: a sakhi serving under Indulekha
Vicitrarava: Sri Krishna’s panegyrist
Vidagdha: Sri Krishna’s priya-narma-sakha; Sudama’s brother
Vidura: Phullakalika’s husband
Vidyavilasa: Sri Krishna’s ordinary servant; expert in composing literary works
Vijaya: one of Sri Radha’s eight sakhis according to the Sammohana Tantra
Vijaya: Sri Radha’s maidservant
Vijayaksha: a suhrit-sakha older than Sri Krishna
Vilasa: Sri Krishna’s servant; prepares His tambula
Vilasa-karmana: Sri Krishna’s golden bow
Vilasa Manjari: Sri Radha’s manjari
Vilasi: Sri Krishna’s priya-sakha
Vimala: Sri Krishna’s servant; takes care of His plate, etc.
Vimala: Sri Krishna’s beloved
Vinaka: Gandharva’s father
Vipaksha-mada-mardini: Sri Radha’s signet ring
Vira: Sri Krishna’s female messenger
Virabhadra: a suhrit-sakha older than Sri Krishna
Viraroha: a gopa like Sri Krishna’s maternal grandfather
Visakha: the second of Sri Radha’s eight principal sakhis: one of Sri Radha’s eight sakhis mentioned in another part of the Sammohana Tantra
Visala: a sakha younger than Sri Krishna
Visala: Vira’s father
Visala: a gopi like Sri Krishna’s mother
Visarada: Sri Krishna’s beloved
Visoka: Lalita’s father
Vitandika: a sakhi insistent upon arranging loving quarrels
Vitankaksha: Sri Krishna’s priya-sakha
Vrika Gopa: Sri Radha’s father-in-law; also named Gola
Vrinda: a female messenger (duti)
Vrindarika: a female messenger (duti)
Vrishabha: a sakha younger than Sri Krishna
Vrisabhanu: Sri Radha’s father; Sri Nanda and Sri Vasudeva’s friend; Sridama and Ananga Manjari’s father
Vyaghra: Sri Krishna’s pet dog

Yakshendra: a suhrit-sakha older than Sri Krishna
Yamuna: Sri Radha’s cow
Yasasvini: another name of Havihsara; Sri Krishna’s maternal aunt
Yasoda: Sri Krishna’s mother; also named Devaki; Rohini’s friend
Yasodeva: Sri Krishna’s maternal uncle
Yasodevi: another name of Dadhisara; Sri Krishna’s maternal aunt
Yasodhara: Sri Krishna’s maternal uncle


daivī māyā, daivi maya

brahmaṇo hi pratiṣṭhāham (Bg. 14.27). (brahmano hi pratisthaham (Bg. 14.27).

uvaca— said;
drstva—after seeing;
pandava-anikam—the soldiers of the Pandavas;
vyudham—arranged in a military phalanx;
raja—the king;
pandu-putranam—of the sons of Pandu;
camum—military force;
drupada-putrena—by the son of Drupada;
dhimata—very intelligent.
atra—here; surah—heroes; maha-isu-asah—mighty bowmen; bhlma-arjuna—to Bhima and Arjuna; samah—equal; yudhi—in the fight; yuyudhanah—Yuyudhana; viratah—Virata; ca—also; drupadah—Drupada; ca—also; maha-rathah—great fighter.
dhrstaketuh—Dhrstaketu; cekitanah—Cekitana; kasirajah—Kasi- raja; ca—also; virya-van—very powerful; purujit—Purujit; kunlibhojah—Kuntibhoja; ca—and; Saibyah—Saibya; ca—and; nara-pungavah—hero in human society.
asmakam—our; tu— but; visistah—especially powerful; ye—who; tan—them; nibodha—just take note of, be informed; dvija-uttama —O best of the brahmanas; nayakah—captains; mama—my; sainyasya—of the soldiers; samjha-artham—for information; tan— them; bravimi—I am speaking; te—to you.
bhavan—your good self; bhismah—Grandfather Bhisma; ca—also; karnah—Karna; ca—and; krpah—Krpa; ca—and; samitim-jayah—always victorious in battle; asvatthama—Asvatthama; vikarnah—Vikarna; ca—as well as; saumadattih—the son of Somadatta; tatha—as well as; eva—certainly; ca—also.
anye—others; ca—also; bahavah—in great numbers; surah— heroes; mat-arthe—for my sake; tyakta-jivitah—prepared to risk life; nana—many; sastra—weapons; praharanah—equipped with; sarve—all of them; yuddha-visaradah—experienced in military science.
aparyaptam—immeasurable; tat—that; asmakam—of ours; balam strength; bhisma—by Grandfather Bhlsma; abhiraksitam— perfectly protected; paryaptam—limited; tu—but; idam—all this; etesam—of the Pandavas; balam—strength; bhima—by Bhima; abhiraksitam—carefully protected.
ayanesu—in the strategic points; ca—also; sarvesu—everywhere; yatha-bhagam—as differently arranged; a vasthitah—situated; bhismam—unto Grandfather Bhisma; eva—certainly; abhi-raksantu—should give support; bhavantah—you; sarve—all respectively; eva hi—certainly.
tasya—his; sanjanayan—increasing; harsam—cheerfulness; kuru- vrddhah—the grandsire of the Kuru dynasty (Bhlsma); pita-mahah—the grandfather; simha-nadam—roaring sound, like that of a lion; vinadya—vibrating; uccaih—very loudly; sankham— conchshell; dadhmau—blew; pratapa-van—the valiant.

tatah—thereafter; sankhdh—conchshells; ca—also; bheryah—large drums; ca—and, panava-anaka—small drums and kettledrums; go- mukhah—horns; sahasd—all of a sudden; eva—certainly; abhyahanyanta—were simultaneously sounded; sah—that; sabdah— combined sound; tumulah—tumultuous; abhavat—became.

tatah—therafter, svetaih—with white; hayaih—horses; yukte— being yoked; mahati—in a great; syandane—chariot; sthitau— situated; madhavah—Krsna (the husband of the goddess of fortune); pandavah—Arjuna (the son of Pandu); ca—also; ever—certainly; divyau—transcendental; sahkhau—conchshells; pradadhmatuh— sounded.

pancajanyam—the conchshell named Pancajanya; hrsika-isah—devadattam—the conchshell named Devadatta; dhanam-jayah— Dhananjaya (Arjuna, the winner of wealth); paundram—the conch named Paundra; dadhmau—blew; maha-sankham—the terrific conchshell; bhima-karma—one who performs herculean tasks; vrka-udarah—the voracious eater (Bhima).

anantavijayam—the conch named Anantavijaya; raja—the king; kunti-putrah—the son of Kunti; yudhisthirah—Yudhisthira; nakulah—Nakula; sahadevah—Sahadeva; ca—and; sughosa-mani- puspakau—the conches named Sughosa and Manipuspaka; kasyah— the King of Kasi (Varanasi); ca—and; parama-isu-asah—the great archer; Sikhandi—Sikhandi; ca—also; maha-rathah—one who can fight alone against thousands; dhrstadyumnah—Dhrstadyumna (the son of King Drupada); viratah—Virata (the prince who gave shelter to the Pandavas while they were in disguise); ca—also; satyaki—Satyaki (the same as Yuyudhana, the charioteer of Lord Krsna); ca—and; aparajitah—who had never been vanquished; drupadah—Drupada, the King of Pancala; draupadeyah—the sons of Draupadl; ca—also; sarvasah—all; prthivi-pate—O King; saubhadrah—Abhimanyu, the son of Subhadra; ca—also; maha-bahuh—mighty-armed; sahkhan—conchshells; dadhmuh—blew; prthak prthak—each separately.

sah—that; ghosah—vibration; dhartarastranam—of the sons of Dhrtarasfra; hrdayani— hearts; vyadarayat—shattered;
nabhah—the sky; ca—also; prthivim—the surface of the earth; ca—also; eva— certainly; tumulah—uproarious; abhyanunadayan—resounding.
vyavasthitan—situated; drstva—looking upon; dhartarastran—the sons of Dhrtarastra; kapi-dhvajah—he whose flag was marked with Hanuman; pravrtte—while about to engage; sastra-sampate—in releasing his arrows; dhanuh—bow; udyamya— taking up;pandavah—the son of Pancju (Arjuna); vakyam—words; idam—these; aha—said; mahi-pate—O King.
senayoh—of the armies; ubhayoh— both; madhye—between; ratham—the chariot; sthdpaya—please keep; me—my; acyuta—O infallible one; ydvat—as long as; etdn— all these; nirikse—may look upon; aham—1; yoddhu-kaman— desiring to fight; avasthitan—arrayed on the battlefield; kaih—with whom; maya—by me; saha—together; yoddhavyam—have to fight; asmin—in this; rana—strife; samudyame—in the attempt.

yotsyamanan—those who will be fighting; avekse—let me see; aham— I ye—who; ete—those; atra—here; samagatah—assembled; dharta-rastrasya—for the son of Dhrtarastra; durbuddheh—evil-minded; yuddhe—in the fight; priya—well; cikirsavah—wishing.

bhisma—Grandfather Bhlsma; drona—the teacher Drona; pramukhatah—in front of; sarvesam—all; ca—also; mahi-ksitam— chiefs of the world; partha—O son of Prtha; pasya— just behold; etdn—all of them; samavetan—assembled; kurun—the members of the Kuru dynasty; iti—thus.

tatra—there; apasyat—he could see; sthitan—standing; parthah— Arjuna; pitrn—fathers; pitamahan—grandfathers; matulan—maternal uncles; bhratrn—brothers; putran—sons; pautran—grandsons; sakhin—friends; tathd—too; svasuran—fathers-in-law; suhrdah—well-wishers; ca—also; eva— certainly; senayoh—of the armies; ubhayoh—of both parties; api—including.
tan—all of them; samiksya—after seeing; sah—he; kaunteyah—the son of Kunti; sarvan—all kinds of; bandhun—relatives; ava¬sthitan—situated; krpaya—by compassion; paraya—of a high grade; avistah—overwhelmed; visidan—while lamenting; idam— thus; abravit—spoke.
drsfva—after seeing; imam—all these; sva-janam—kinsmen; krsna—0 Krsna; yuyutsum—all in a fighting spirit; samupasthitam—present; sidanti—are quivering; mama— my; gatrani—limbs of the body; mukham—mouth; ca—also; pariiusyati—is drying up.

vepathuh—trembling of the body; ca—also; sarire—on the body; me—my; roma-harsah—standing of hair on end; ca—also; jdyale— is taking place; garidivam—the bow of Arjuna; sramsate—is slip¬ping; hastat—from the hand; tvak—skin; ca—also; eva—certainly; paridahyate—is burning.

na—nor; ca—also; saknomi—am I able; avasthatum—to stay; bhramati—forgetting; iva—as; ca—and; me—my; manah—mind; nimittani—causes; ca—also; pasyami—I see; viparitani—just the opposite;

na—nor; ca—also; sreyah—good; anupasyami—do I foresee; hatva—by killing; sva-janam—own kinsmen; ahave—in the fight; na—nor; karikse—do I desire; vijayam—victory; krsna—O Krsna; na—nor; ca—also; rajyam—kingdom; sukhani—happiness thereof; ca—also.

kim—what use; nah—io us; rajyena—is the kingdom; govinda—O Krsna; kim—what; bhogaih—enjoyment; jivitena—living; va— either; yesdm—of whom; arthe—for the sake; kanksitam—is desired; nah—by us; rajyam—kingdom; bhogdh—material enjoyment; sukhani—all happiness; ca—also;
re—all of them; ime—these; avasthitah situated; yuddhe—on this battlefield; pranan—lives; tyaktva—giving up; dhanani— riches; ca—also; pitarah—fathers; putrah—sons; tatha—as well as; eva—certainly; ca—also; pitamahah—grandfathers; matulah—maternal uncles; svasurah fathers-in-law; pautrah—grandsons; syalah—brothers- in-law; sambandhinah—relatives; tatha—as well as; etan—all these; na—never; hantum—to kill; icchami—do I wish; ghnatah—being killed; api—even; madhusudana—O killer of the demon Madhu (Krsna); api—even if; trai-lokya—of the three worlds; rajyasya—for the kingdom; hetoh—in exchange; kim nu—what to speak of; mahi-krte—for the sake of the earth; nihatya—by killing; dhartarasfran—the sons of Dhrtarastra; nah—our; ka—what; pritih—pleasure; syat—will there be;
papam—vices; eva—certainly; asrayet—must come upon; asman—us; halva—by killing; etan—all these; ataiayinah—aggres¬sors; tasmat—therefore; na—never; arhah—deserving; vayam—we; hantum—to kill; dhartarastran—the sons of Dhrtarastra; sa- bandhavan—along with friends; sva-janam—kinsmen; hi—certainly; katham—how; halva—by killing; sukhinah—happy; syama—will we become; madhava—O Krsna, husband of the goddess of fortune.

yadi—if; api—even; ete—they; na—do not; pasyanti—see; lobha— by greed; upahata—overpowered; cetasah—their hearts; kula- ksaya—in killing the family; krtam—done; dosam—fault; mitra-drohe—in quarreling with friends; ca—also;patakam—sinful reactions; katham—why; na—should not; jneyam—be known; asmabhih—by us; papat—from sins; asmat—these; nivartitum—to cease; kula-ksaya—in the destruction of a dynasty; krtam—done; dosam—crime; prapasyadbhih—by those who can see; jandrdana— O Krsna.

kula-ksaye—in destroying the family; pranasyanti—become van¬quished; kula-dharmah—the family traditions; sanatanah—eternal; dharme—religion; naste-—being destroyed; kulam—family; krts¬nam—whole; adharmah—irreligion; abhibhavati—transforms; uta—it is said.

adharma—irreligion; abhibhavat—having become predominant; krsna—O Krsna; pradusyanti—become polluted; kula-striyah— family ladies; strisu—by the womanhood; dustasu—being so polluted; varsneya—O descendant of Vrsni; jayate—comes into being; varrya-sahkarah—unwanted progeny.

sankarah—such unwanted children; narakaya—make for hellish life; eva—certainly; kula-ghnanam—for those who are killers of the family; kulasya—for the family; ca—also; patanti—fall down; pitarah—forefathers; hi—certainly; esam—of them; lupta— stopped; udaka—and water; kriyah—performances.

dosaih—by such faults; etaih—all these; kula-ghnanam—of the destroyers of the family; varrya-sahkara—of unwanted children; karakaifr—which are causes; utsadyante—are devastated; jati- dharmah—community projects; kula-dharmah—family traditions; ca—also; Safvatah—eternal.

utsanna—spoiled; kula-dharmariam—of those who have the family traditions; manusyanam—of such men; janardana—O Krsna; narake—in hell; niyatam—always; vasah—residence; bhavati—it so becomes; iti—thus; anususruma—I have heard by disciplic succession.

aho—alas; bata—how strange it is; mahat—great; papam—sins; kartum—to perform; vyavasitah—have decided; vayam—we; yat— because; rajya-sukha-lobhena—driven by greed for royal happiness; hantum—to kill; sva-janam—kinsmen; udyatah—trying.

yadi—even if; mam—me; apratikaram—without being resistant; asastram—without being fully equipped; sastra-panayah—those with weapons in hand; dhartarastrah—the sons of Dhftarastra; rape— on the battlefield; hanyuh—may kill; tat—that; me—for me; ksema-taram—better; bhavet—would be.

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