Maha-bharata, Adi Parva, Anukramanika Parva, Adhyaya 1, verses 29-47

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Adhyaya 1
Short description of creation

 

In this universe, when there was no brightness and no light and when all was enveloped in darkness, there came into being a Mighty Egg, the one inexhaustible Seed of all created beings. – 29

The word used in the original text is “brihadanda”. Brihat means powerful and anda egg. Most commentators translate this word as “mighty egg”, since the universe has an ovoidal form. However this interpretation doesn’t match with anything said after. Brihadanda is the powerful divine energy from which everything comes, the sakti of the Lord.

It is called Mahadivya and was created at the beginning of the Yuga. In it existed the true Light, Brahma, the eternal One, the wonderful and inconceivable Being, the omnipresent, invisible and subtle Cause, the Entity and Non- entity-natured Self. – 30 – 31

The word mahadivya confirms our position. Brahma and everything else did not come from the material universe but from a a transcendental energy. In this regard the Srimad-Bhagavatam (3.26) explains that the material nature is divided in three stages, called Pradhana, Prakriti and Mahat-tattva. These are three different stages of the development of material creation. When material energy is non manifested and and non differentiated is called Pradhana. When is manifested but non differentiated is called Prakriti. When is manifested and differentiated is calles Maha-tattva.

Here the word yuga is used in a generic way. In this case it means at the beginning of the creation.

Lord Visnu. Many Puranas tell the story of how Brahma was born from the lotus of Visnu and from him he acquired knowledge.

From this Egg was bom the Lord Pitamaha, Brahma, the one only Prajapati, with Suraguru and Sthanu, Manu, Ka (Vishnu) and Parameshti. Prachetasas, Daksha and the seven sons of Daksha. Then also twenty one Prajapatis were bom. The Purusha of inconceivable nature whom all the Rishis know. Then appeared Vishvedevas, the Adityas, the Vasus and the two Ashvins. – 32 – 34

Pitamaha:
Grandfather. Brahma is the first created being so is the grandfather of all and the Lord of creatures.

Suraguru
Suraguru means the spiritual master of the celestials. Most commentators say that here it refers to Brihaspati, the preceptor of the demigods. However Brihaspati came much later. In fact he was the grandson of Brahma, being the offspring of Angira. Suraguru here may very well refer to to himself, that the two name Brahma Suraguru are a compound.

Sthanu
Lord Siva, the firm or immovable.

Twenty one Prajapatis
Rudra, Manu, Daksha, Bhrigu, Dharma, Tapa, Yama, Marici, Angiras, Atri, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Vasishtha, Paramesthi, Surya, Chandra, Kardama, Krodha and Vikrita.

Vishvedevas
According to the Visnu Purana the Visvadevas are: 1. Vasu 2. Satya 3. Kratu 4. Daksha, 5. Kala 6. Kama 7. Dhrti 8. Kuru 9. Pururava 10. Madravas, with two others added by some, 11. Rocaka or Locana, 12. Dhvani Dhuri

Adityas
The sons of Aditi. According to the Srimad-Bhagavatam they are Vishnu, Aryama, Indra, Tvashtha, Varuna, Dhata, Bhaga, Parjanya, Vivasvan, Amshuman, Mitra, Pushya

The Vasus
Vedic texts give different list of who the Vasus are. In general they are eight demigods attendants of Indra

Twin Asvinis
Satya and Dasra are the tween demigods sons of Vivasvan. (Slokas 17 and 18, Adhyaya 150, Anusasana Parva, M.B.). They are also known as Asvins, and Asvinidevas. These -two are the physicians of the devas. (Sloka 12, Adhyaya 123, Aranya Parva, M.B).

The Yakshas, the Sadhyas, the Pisachas, the Guhyakas and the Pitris. Then were produced the wise and the most holy Brahmarshi and the numerous Rajarshis, distinguished for every noble quality, then the water, the heavens, the earth, the sky and the points of the heavens. 35 – 36
Yakshas
There are three classes of ingabitants of heavenly planets: Devas, Ganadevas and Upadevas. The Yaksas are a sudivision of Upadevas.

Sadhyas
The Sadhyas are recurring Devas in the puranic history. They are Prajapati Daksa grandchildren by his son Virat Purusa. However we find in the Visnu Purana another version.

Pisacas
Evil spirits

Guhyakas
A division of Yaksas who were prominent members of the court of Kuvera.

Pitris
The Pitris are divided into two classes, called the Agnisvattas and the Barhisadas.

The years, the seasons, the months, the fortnights and the day and night in succession. And again, at the end of the world and of the Yuga, whatever is seen in the universe, all created things, both animate and inanimate, will be turned into chaos. -37, 38

After these were produced the wise and most holy Brahmarshis, and the numerous Rajarshis distinguished by every noble quality. So the water, the heavens, the earth, the air, the sky, the points of the heavens, the years, the seasons, the months, the fortnights, called Pakshas, with day and night in due succession.
Two paksas form a month. Krishna Paksha is the dark lunar fortnight or waning moon. It’s the period of 15 days beginning on the full moon day (Purnima) and culminating on new moon day (Amavasya). Shukla Paksha is the period beginning with a new moon (Amavasya) and ending in a full moon (purnima).

And at the beginning of other (new) Yugas, all things will be again produced; and like the various fruits of the earth will succeed one another in the dye order of their seasons. – 39

All elements forming the manifestations, like bodies etc., will go back into nature, will mix together, and the same original elements will be used again for other creations.

This mysterious wheel, which causes, the destruction and production of all things, revolves thus perpetually in the world, without beginning and without an end. – 40

To cite a brief example, The generation of Devas, was thirty three thousand, thirty three hundred and thirty three. – 41

The sons of Diva were Brihadbhanus, Chakshus, Atma, Vibhavasu, Savita, Richika, Arka, Bhanu, Ashavaha and Ravi. – 42

Of these Vivasvanas, old Mahya was the youngest whose son was Devabhrata.
Devabhrata had one son, named Subhrata who had three sons, namely Dashajyoti, Shatajyoti and Sahasrajyoti, each of whom gave birth to innumerable offsprings. – 43, 44

Famous Dashajyoti had ten thousands, Shatajyoti had ten times that number and Sahasrajyoti, ten times the number of the offsprings of Shatajyoti. From them descended the race of the Kurus, Yadus and Bharata and also that of Yayati and Ikshvaku and all the Rajarshis. There were also produced numerous other generations. – 45 to 47

 

 

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