Sanskrit words, various

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Vesa

Hola, una pregunta. ¿Qué quiere decir Citra? Yo sé que se refiere a una Gopi. Por qué se le da el nombre Citravesa? Muchas gracias. Haribol
Tatiana Ortega, Venezuela

Respuestas:
El nombre Citra significa excelente, brillante, variada. Vesa puede significar cosas diferentes, pero en este contexto significa “ropa”. Ella, que está vestida de manera colorida y variada se llama Citravesa. Puede también significar una persona que tiene una apariencia física muy atractiva.

vasanti

भवन्तः सर्वे सहैव वसन्ति वा? bhavantaH sarve sahaiva vasanti vA? sent. Do all of you live together? edit
वासन्ती vAsantI f. spring festival edit
वासन्ती vAsantI f. particular rAgiNI edit
वासन्ती vAsantI f. kind of metre edit

vara

वर vara adj. best edit
वार vAra m. day edit
वर vara m. boon edit
वार vAra m. day of the week edit
वर vara m. bridegroom edit
वारं वारम् vAraM vAram adverb again and again edit
अद्य कः वारः ? adya kaH vAraH ? sentence Which day is today? edit
वरः विदेशे अस्ति varaH videze asti sent. The bridegroom is in a foreign country. edit
भवतः कृते कथनापेक्षया स्वयं करणं वरम् bhavataH kRte kathanApekSayA svayaM karaNaM varam sent. Better do the work myself rather than asking you to do it. edit
वर vara adj. royal edit
वर vara adj. choosing edit
वर vara adj. princely edit
वर vara adj. preferable edit
वर vara adj. choice edit
वर vara adj. choicest edit
वर vara adj. valuable edit
वर vara adj. precious edit
वर vara adj. select edit
वर vara adj. better than or among edit
वर vara adj. excellent edit

वर vara adj. foremost edit
वर vara adj. better edit
वर vara adj. eldest edit
वर vara adj. most excellent or eminent among or for edit
वारा vArA f. courtezan edit
वारा vArA f. harlot edit
वर vara m. bride-groom edit
वार vAra m. quantity edit
वर vara m. benefit edit
वार vAra m. anything enclosed or circumscribed in space or time edit
वर vara m. gift edit
वार { वृ } vAra { vR } m. anything which covers or surrounds or restrains edit
वर vara m. thing chosen as gift edit
वार vAra m. treasure edit
वर vara m. sparrow edit
वार vAra m. moment edit
वर vara m. bridegroom’s friend edit
वर vara m. dowry edit
वर vara m. lover edit
वर vara m. resin of Guggul tree [ Commiphora wightii – Bot. ] ed

वर vara m. room edit
वार vAra m. turn edit
वार vAra m. arrow edit
वर vara m. alms edit
वार vAra m. appointed place edit
वर vara m. chooser edit
वर vara m. environing edit
वार { वृ } vAra { vR } m. cover edit
वार vAra m. hair of any animal’s tail edit
वर vara m. thing chosen as reward edit
वर vara m. space edit
वार vAra m. occasion edit
वर vara m. blessing edit
वर vara m. dissolute man edit
वर vara m. kind of grain edit
वार vAra m. Prickly chaff flower [ Achyranthes Aspera – Bot. ] edit
वर vara m. reward edit
वार vAra m. choice edit
वर vara m. advantage edit
वार vAra m. time fixed or appointed for anything edi

Vicara

विचार vicAra m. thought edit
विचार vicAra m. dispute edit
विचार vicAra m. idea edit
विचर vicara adj. wandered or swerved from edit
विचार vicAra m. examination edit
विचार vicAra m. mode of acting or proceeding edit
विचार vicAra m. verdict edit
विचार vicAra m. prudence edit
विचार vicAra m. investigation edit
विचार vicAra m. change of place edit
विचार vicAra m. consultation edit
विचार vicAra m. procedure edit
विचार vicAra m. doubt edit
विचार vicAra m. deliberation edit
विचार vicAra m. consideration edit
विचार vicAra m. probable conjecture edit
विचार vicAra m. hesitation edit
विचार vicAra m. counsel edit
विचार vicAra m. reflection edit
विचार vicAra m. pondering edit
विचार vicAra m. discussion edit

VYUSTI.
Another name for day-time.

viveka:
discriminazione

– viveka, conoscenza discriminativa

विवेक viveka m. wisdom edit
विवेक viveka m. discrimination [ between two things ] edit
विवेक viveka m. water trough edit
विवेक viveka m. distinction edit
विवेक viveka m. true knowledge edit
विवेक viveka m. right judgement edit
विवेक viveka m. discussion edit
विवेक viveka m. power of separating the invisible Spirit from the visible world edit
विवेक viveka m. discretion edit
विवेक viveka m. judgement edit
विवेक viveka m. investigation edit
विवेक viveka m. consideration edit
विवेक viveka m. prudence edit
विवेक viveka m. faculty of distinguishing and classifying things according to their real properties

VYUHA.
(Disposition of an army). Disposition of an army of four parts, (infantry, cavalry, elephants and chariots) in the battlefield, the arrangement of it, in various forms. It is said that during the period of Mahabharata, there were various forms of disposition of the army. Some of them are given below:

i) Ardhacandravyuha. (like a Crescent moon) (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 56) ii) Garudavyuha. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 56). iii) Krauncavyuha. (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 60) . iv) Cakravyuha. (wheel-shaped) (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 34) . v) Makaravyuha. (shark-like) (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 69) . vi) Mandalavyuha. (circular) (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 81). vii) Mandalardhavyuha. (Semi circular) (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 20) . viii) Vajravyuha. (Diamond-shaped) (M.B. Bhi sma Parva, Chapter 81). ix) Sakatavyuha. (cart-shaped) (M.B. Drona Parva, Chapter 7) . x) Syenavyuha. (Vulture-like) (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 69) . xi) Sarvatobhadravyaha. (fortified all-round) Bhisma Parva, Chapter 99). xii) Suparnavyuha. (kite-shaped) (M.B. Droria Parva, Chapter 20) . xiii) S ucimukhavyuha. (Like the needle-eye) (M.B. Bhisma Parva, Chapter 77) .

VYAVAHARA.
It is mentioned in Manusmrti, Chapter 8, that administering the law was of eighteen types in ancient India. i) Pertaining to giving and taking. ii) Pertaining to the property entrusted to another for keeping. iii) Selling the property by anybody other than its owner. iv) Appropriating gain to oneself in a combined transaction. v) Not handing over the property which was given as a gift. vi) Non-payment of salary. vii) Disobeying orders. viii) Retaining and doubting the ownership after the completion of a transaction of selling or buying. ix) A law suit between the owner of the cattle and the cowherd or shepherd. x) Dispute about boundary. xi) Striking another. xii) Reviling others xiii ) Theft and robbery. xiv) Violence. xv) Stealing another’s wife. xvi) Matrimonial responsibilities. xvii) Partition. xviii) Gambling. Whenever difference of opinion arises between two persons on any of the matter given above, the King should interfere and make a decision. For one reason or another, if the King could not attend the court, three learned Brahmins should enter the court and conduct the trial sitting or standing, and they should not conduct the trial walking to and fro. This was the practice of courts in ancient India.

Vada
Among logicians there are different kinds of argument. Supporting one’s argument with evidence that also supports the opposing side is called jalpa. Merely trying to defeat one’s opponent is called vitanda. But the actual conclusion is called vada. This conclusive truth is a representation of Krsna.

VAJRANABHA.
[Source: Dowson’s Classical Dictionary of Hindu Mythology] The celebrated chakra (discus) of Krishna. According to the Mahabharata it was given to him by Agni for his assistance in defeating Indra and burning the Khandava forest.

V

V, termini da encliclopedia
V
V€caspati (Vacaspati)
vedi chi Vacaspati!!!!
autore di Bhamati, un testo considerato mayavada

Bibliografia:
Advaita e Visistadvaita di Srinivasacari, pag.10

v€da (vada)
” forma di discussione tesa a stabilire la propria dottrina in modo costruttivo.
Bibliografia:
“Advaita and Visistadvaita” di Srinivasacari (pag.4)
Sat-sanga n.?, art. di Manonath dasa

” philosofical discussion aimed at the ascertainment of truth. (Advaita and Visistadvaita, Glossario)

v€da-grantha (vada-grantha)
a tretise containing philosophical discussion, polemic work. (Advaita and Visistadvaita, Glossario)

VaikuŠ˜ha (Vaikuntha)
” i pianeti spirituali. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

vairagin
in Hinduism, a religious ascetic who worships principally one or another form of the god Vishnu. Vairagins generally wear white robes, in contrast to the ochre-coloured robes worn by Shaiva ascetics, and are also differentiated by their tilak (sect mark on the forehead), which is never made of ash and is always vertical in design.
Most vairagins, when not wandering or on pilgrimage,
reside in monastic communities called sthanas (“spots”
or “places”); but the naga (“naked”) vairagins, who are also the militants among the Vaisnava ascetics, form their own groups,
called akharas. In the past, battles between groups of
naked ascetics belonging to different sects centred mainly on
bathing and processional rights during pilgrimage assemblies,
such as the Kumbha Mela. (1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica)

vair€gya (vairagya)
non-attachment to wordly objects, absence of desire for anything except the Lord. (Advaita and Visistadvaita, Glossario)

vaisesika
also spelled VAISESIKA, Sanskrit VAIShESIKA (“Particular”), one of the six orthodox systems (darshans) of Indian philosophy, significant for its naturalism, a feature that is not characteristic of most Indian thought. The Sanskrit philosopher Kanada Kashyapa (2nd-3rd century AD?) expounded its theories and is credited with founding the school. Important later commentaries were written by Prashastapada, Udayana, and Shridhara. After a period of independence, the Vaisheshika school fused entirely with the Nyaya (q.v.) school, a process that was completed in the 11th century. Thereafter the combined school was referred to as Nyaya-Vaisheshika. The Vaisheshika school attempts to identify, inventory, and classify the entities and their relations that present themselves to human perceptions. It lists six categories of being (padarthas), to which was later added a seventh. These are:
(1) Dravya, or substance, the substratum that exist independently
of all other categories, and the material cause of all compound
things produced from it. Dravyas are nine in number:
earth, water, fire, air, ether, time, space, spirit, and mind.
(2) Guna, or quality, which in turn is subdivided into 24 species.
(3) Karman, or action. Both guna and karman inhere within dravya and cannot exist independently of it.
(4) Samanya, or genus, which denotes characteristic similarities that allow
two or more objects to be classed together.
(5) Vishesa, or specific difference, which singles out an individual of that class.
(6) Samavaya, or inherence, which indicates things inseparably connected.
To these six was later added abhava, nonexistence or absence. Though negative in content, the impression it makes is positive; one has a perception of an absence where one misses something. Four such absences are recognized: previous absence, as of a new product; later absence, as of a destroyed object; total absence, as of colour in the wind; and reciprocal absence, as of a jar and a cloth, neither of which is the other.
The Vaisheshika system holds that the smallest, indivisible,
indestructible part of the world is an atom (anu). All physical things are a combination of the atoms of earth, water, fire, and air. Inactive and motionless
in themselves, the atoms are put into motion by God’s will,
through the unseen forces of moral merit and demerit. (1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica)

vaisnava (filosofia)
also called VISHNUISM, or VISNUISM, Sanskrit VAISNAVISM, worship of the god Vishnu and of his incarnations, principally as Rama and as Krishna. It is one of the major forms of modern Hinduism–with Shaivism and Shaktism (Shaktism).
A major characteristic of Vaishnavism is the strong part played by bhakti, or religious devotion. The ultimate goal of the devotee is to escape from the cycle of birth and death so as to enjoy the presence of Vishnu. This cannot be achieved without the grace of God. Vishnu is not only the end (upeya) but
also the means (upaya). For his part, the devotee must
cultivate the auxiliary disciplines of karman, the path
of good works, and jnana, the way of spiritual
knowledge.
Sectarian Vaishnavism had its beginnings in the cult of Vasudeva-Krishna, who may have been a Yadava tribal leader (c. 7th-6th century BC). The Vasudeva cult coalesced with others worshiping the deified sage Narayana
so that by about the 2nd century AD Vasudeva, Krishna,
and Narayana appeared in the celebrated
religious poem the Bhagavadgita as interchangeable names
of Lord Vishnu. The cult of the pastoral Krishna was soon added.
The philosophical schools of Vaishnavism differ in their interpretation
of the relationship between individual souls and God. The doctrines
of the mosst important schools are: (1) vishistadvaita (“qualified monism”), associated with the name of Ramanuja (11th century) and continued by the Shrivaisnava sect, prominent
in South India; (2) dvaita (“dualism”), the principal exponent of which was Madhva (13th century), who taught that although the soul is dependent on God it is not an extension of God, that the soul
and God are separate entities; (3)
dvaitadvaita (“dualistic monism”), taught by Nimbarka
(12th century), according to which the world of souls and matter
is both different and not different from God; (4) shuddhadvaita (“pure monism”) of Vallabha, which explains the world without the doctrine of maya (illusion); (5) acintya-bhedabheda (“inconceivable duality and nonduality”), the doctrine of Caitanya, in which the relation between the world of souls and matter on the one hand and God on the other is not to be grasped by thought but is both different and nondifferent.
In addition to these philosophical schools, each of which has
its own sectarian following, Vaishnavism also includes a number
of popular expressions of devotionalism, which were furthered
in the late medieval period by the vernacular writings of Ramananda
and his disciples and by Vaishnava poets such as Tulsidas
in the Hindi area, Mira Bai in Gujarat,
and Namdev and Tukaram in the Maratha
country. (1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica)

Vallabha
also called VALLABHACARYA (b. 1479, Benares, Jaunpur,
India–d. 1531, Benares), Hindu philosopher and founder of the
important devotional sect the Vallabhacaryas, also known as the pustimarga (“the way of prosperity, or well-being”).
Born to a Telegu Brahman family, Vallabha showed precocity
in spiritual and intellectual matters from an early age. He
initiated his first disciple in 1493 at Mathura, which became
the centre of his activities, though he undertook several pilgrimages
throughout India, propagating his doctrine of bhakti (devotion)
to the god Krishna. It was near Mathura, at the foot of Mount
Govardhana, that Vallabha discovered the central cult object
of the sect, an image of Krishna called Shri-Nathaji.
Vallabhacarya (acarya, “teacher”) himself
belonged to the Rudra sect established by Visnusvamin, and his philosophical system of pure nondualism (shuddhadvaita)–i.e., the identity of God and the universe–closely follows that of the Visnusvamin tradition. God is worshiped not by fasting and physical austerities but by love of him and of the universe. Salvation arises only by virtue of the grace of God. In order to receive divine love, the devotee must surrender himself wholly (samarpana) to God’s gift of love.
Vallabha was married and had two sons, though he became a sannyasin
(ascetic) shortly before his death. His son Vitthala
succeeded him as head of the Vallabhacarya sect.

(1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica)

Vasudeva
in Hindu mythology, the patronymic of Krishna (Krsna), who, according to one tradition, was a son of Vasudeva. The worshipers of Vasudeva, or Krishna, formed one of the earliest theistic devotional movements within Hinduism. When they merged with other groups, namely the Bhagavata, they represented the beginnings of modern Vaisnavism, or worship of Lord Vishnu. A significant 2nd-century-BC inscription at Besnagar, near Vidisha (Bhilsa), Madhya Pradesh, refers to a column topped by a figure of Garuda (the emblem or mount of Lord Vishnu), erected in honour of Vasudeva by the Indo-Greek ambassador Heliodorus, who termed himself a “Bhagavata.” Though, in the earliest parts of the great Indian epic the Mahabharata, the divinity of Krishna appears to be still open to doubt, by the time of the writing of the Bhagavadgita (1st-2nd century AD), Vasudeva-Krishna
was clearly identified with the Vedic god Vishnu.
(1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica)

Veda
Scienze vediche
R€si: artmetica e algebra
Daiva: la scienza che tratta degli avvenimenti fisici accidentali
Nidhi: la scienza che regola la divisione del tempo in mah€k€la, k€la, ecc
Tarka: la logica
N…ti: politica
Deva vidy€ (nirukta): spiegazione di glossario di termini astrusi, specialmete quelli che vengono trovati nei Veda
Brahma-vidy€: articulation, cerimonials and prosody
Devajana-vidya: la scienza di fare essenze, della danza, del canto, della musica, dell’architettura e della pittura
Bhuta-vidya: la scienza degli spiriti
Ksetra-vidya: archery
Sarpa-vidya: la scienza degli antidoti
(Chhandogya Upanisad 7.1. da 2 in poi)

” Hinduism: Sacred texts: VEDAS: The components of the Veda. he Veda is the product of the Aryan invaders of the Indian subcontinent and their descendants, although the original inhabitants (disdainfully called daacute;syus, or “slaves,” in the Veda) may very well have exerted an influence on the final product. The Veda represents the particular interests of two classes of Aryan society, the priests Brahmans) and the warrior-kings (Ksatriyas), who together ruled over the far more numerous peasants (Vaishyas). Vedic literature ranges from the Rigveda (Rgveda; c. 1400 BC) to the Upanishads (Upanisads; c. 1000-500 BC). This literature provides the sole documentation for all Indian religion before Buddhism and the early texts of classical Hinduism. Because it is the literature of a ruling class, it probably does not represent all the myths and cults of the early Indo-Aryans, let alone those of the non-Aryans. The most important texts are the four collections (Samhitas) known as the Veda or Vedas (i.e., “Book[s] of Knowledge”): the Rigveda (“Wisdom of the Verses”), the Yajurveda (“Wisdom
of the Sacrificial Formulas”), the Samaveda (“Wisdom
of the Chants”), and the Atharvaveda (“Wisdom of the Atharvan
Priests”). Of these, the Rigveda is the oldest.
In the Vedic texts following these earliest compilations, the
Brahmanas (discussions of the ritual), Aranyakas (books studied in the forest), and Upanishads (secret teachings concerning cosmic equations), the interest in the early Rigvedic
gods wanes, and they become little more than accessories to
the Vedic rite. Polytheism begins to be replaced by a sacrificial
pantheism of Prajapati (“Lord of Creatures”), who is the All. In the
Upanishads Prajapati merges with the concept of brahman, the supreme reality and substance of the universe (not to be confused with the Hindu god Brahma), replacing any specific personification, thus transforming the mythology into abstract philosophy.
Together, the components of each of the four Vedas–the Samhitas, Brahmanas, Aranyakas, and Upanishads–constitute
the revealed scripture of Hinduism, or the Sruti (Shruti; “Heard”). All other works–in which the actual doctrines and practices of Hindus are encoded–are recognized as having been composed by human authors and are thus classed
as Smriti (Smrti; “Remembered”). The categorization of Veda,
however, is capable of elasticity. First, the Sruti is not exactly
closed; Upanishads, for example, have been composed until recent
times. Second, the texts categorized as Smriti inevitably claim
to be in accord with the authoritative Sruti, and thus worthy
of the same respect and sacredness. For Hindus, the Veda is
a symbol of unchallenged authority and tradition.
(1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica)


Veda sacred hymn or verse composed in archaic Sanskrit and current among the Indo-European-speaking peoples who entered India from the Iranian regions. No definite date can be ascribed to the composition of the Vedas, some of which possess high literary merit, but the period of about 1500-1200 BC would be acceptable to most scholars. The hymns formed a liturgical body that in part grew up around the cult of the soma ritual and the sacrifice. They extolled the hereditary deities, who for the most part personified various natural and cosmic phenomena, such as fire (Agni), sun (Surya and Savitr), dawn (Usas), storms (the Rudras), war and rain (Indra), honour (Mitra), divine authority (Varuna), and creation (Indra, with some aid of Vishnu). Hymns were composed to these deities, and many were recited or chanted during rituals.
The foremost collection, or Samhita, of such
hymns, from which the hotr (chief priest) drew the material for his recitations, is the Rigveda. Sacred formulas known as mantras were recited by the priest responsible for the sacrificial fire and the carrying out of the ceremony; these mantras and verses in time were drawn into Samhitas known collectively as Yajurveda. A third group of priests, headed by the udgatr (“chanter”), performed melodic recitations linked to verses that, although drawn almost entirely from the Rigveda, came to be arranged as a separate Samhita, the Samaveda (“Veda of the Chants”). To these three Vedas–Rg, Yajur, and Sama, known as the trayi-vidya (“threefold knowledge”)–is added a fourth, the Atharvaveda, a collection of hymns, magic spells, and incantations that represents a more folk level of religion and remains partly outside the Vedic sacrifice.
The entire corpus of Vedic literature–the Samhitas and the expositions that came to be attached to them, the Brahmanas, the Aranyakas, and the Upanishads–was considered Shruti, the product of divine revelation. The whole of the literature seems to have been preserved orally (although there must early have been manuscripts to assist memory). Even today several of these works, notably the three oldest Vedas, are recited with subtleties of intonation and rhythm that have been handed down from the early days of Vedic religion (q.v.) in India.
(1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica)


sacred hymn or verse composed in archaic Sanskrit and current
among the Indo-European-speaking peoples who entered India from
the Iranian regions. No definite date can be ascribed to the
composition of the Vedas, some of which possess high literary
merit, but the period of about 1500-1200 BC would be acceptable
to most scholars. The hymns formed a liturgical body that in
part grew up around the cult of the soma ritual and the sacrifice.
They extolled the hereditary deities, who for the most part
personified various natural and cosmic phenomena, such as fire
(Agni), sun (Surya and Savitr), dawn (Usas),
storms (the Rudras), war and rain (Indra), honour (Mitra), divine
authority (Varuna), and creation (Indra, with some aid
of Vishnu). Hymns were composed to these deities, and many were
recited or chanted during rituals.
The foremost collection, or Samhita, of such
hymns, from which the hotr (chief priest) drew the material
for his recitations, is the Rigveda. Sacred formulas known as mantras were recited by the priest responsible for the sacrificial fire and the carrying
out of the ceremony; these mantras and verses in time were drawn
into Samhitas known collectively as Yajurveda. A third group of priests, headed by the udgatr (“chanter”), performed melodic recitations linked to verses that, although drawn almost entirely from the Rigveda, came
to be arranged as a separate Samhita, the Samaveda (“Veda of the Chants”). To these three Vedas–Rg,
Yajur, and Sama, known as the trayi-vidya (“threefold
knowledge”)–is added a fourth, the Atharvaveda, a collection of hymns, magic spells, and incantations that represents a more folk level of religion and remains partly outside the Vedic sacrifice.
The entire corpus of Vedic literature–the Samhitas
and the expositions that came to be attached to them, the Brahmanas,
the Aranyakas, and the Upanishads–was considered
Shruti, the product of divine revelation. The whole of
the literature seems to have been preserved orally (although
there must early have been manuscripts to assist memory). Even
today several of these works, notably the three oldest Vedas,
are recited with subtleties of intonation and rhythm that have
been handed down from the early days of Vedic religion (q.v.) in India.
(1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica)


Hinduism: Sacred texts
Importance of the Vedas.

The Veda, meaning “Knowledge,” is a collective term for the sacred
scriptures of the Hindus. Since about the 5th century BC, the
Veda has been considered to be the creation of neither human
nor god; rather, it is regarded as the eternal Truth that was
in ancient times directly revealed to or “heard” by gifted and
inspired seers (rishis) who transcribed it into the most perfect
human language, Sanskrit. Although most of the religion of the
Vedic texts, which revolves around rituals of fire sacrifice, has been eclipsed by Hindu doctrines and practices, the absolute authority and sacredness of the Veda remains a central tenet of virtually all Hindu sects and traditions. Even today, as it has been for several millennia, parts of the Veda are memorized and recited as a religious act of great merit.
(1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica)


South Asian Arts: Music: ANTIQUITY: Vedic chant.
Compilation of hymns.

It is generally thought among scholars that the Indus Valley
civilization was terminated by the arrival of bands of semi-nomadic
tribesmen, the Aryans, who descended into India from the northwest,
probably in the first half of the 2nd millennium BC. An important
aspect of Aryan religious life was the bard-priest who composed hymns
in praise of gods, to be sung or chanted at sacrifices. This
tradition was continued in the invaders’ new home in northern
India until a sizable body of oral religious poetry had been composed. By about 1000 BC this body of chanted poetry had apparently grown to unmanageable
proportions, and the best of the poems were formed into an anthology
called Rigveda, which was then canonized. It was not committed to writing,
but text and chanting formula were carefully handed down by
word of mouth from one generation to the next, up to the present
period. The poems in the Rigveda are arranged according to the
priestly families who used and, presumably, had composed the
hymns. Shortly after this a new Veda, called the Yajurveda, basically a methodical rearrangement of the verses of the Rigveda with certain additions in prose, was created to serve as a kind of manual for the priest officiating at the
sacrifices. At approximately the same time, a third Veda, the Samaveda, was created for liturgical purposes. The Samaveda was also derived from the hymns of the Rigveda, but the words were distorted by the repetition of syllables, pauses, prolongations, and phonetic changes, as well as the insertion of certain meaningless syllables believed to have magical significance. A fourth Veda, the Atharvaveda, was accepted as a Veda considerably later and is quite unrelated to the other three. It represents the more popular aspects of the Aryan religion and consists mostly of magic spells and incantations.
Each of these Vedas has several ancillary texts, called the Brahmanas, Aranyakas, and Upanisads, which are also regarded as part of the Vedas. These ancillary texts are concerned primarily with mystical speculations, symbolism, and the cosmological significance of the sacrifice. The Vedic literature was oral and not written down until very
much later, the first reference to a written Vedic text being
in the 10th century AD. In order to ensure the purity of the
Vedas, the slightest change was forbidden, and the priests devised
systems of checks and counterchecks, so that there has been
virtually no change in these texts for about 3,000 years. Underlying
this was the belief that the correct recitation of the Vedas
was “the pivot of the universe” and that the slightest mistake
would have disastrous cosmic consequence unless expiated by
sacrifice and prayer. The Vedas are still chanted by the Brahmin
priests at weddings, initiations, funerals, and the like, in
the daily devotions of the priests, and at the now rarely held
so-called public sacrifices.
From the Vedic literature it is apparent that music played
an important part in the lives of the Aryan peoples, and there
are references to stringed instruments, wind instruments, and
several types of drums and cymbals. Songs, instrumental music,
and dance are mentioned as being an integral part of some of
the sacrificial ceremonies. The bow harp (vina), a stringed
instrument (probably a board zither) with 100 strings, and the
bamboo flute were the most prominent melody instruments. Little
is known of the music, however, apart from the Vedic chanting,
which can still be heard today.
(1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica)


Hinduism: Sacred texts: VEDAS: Elaborations of text and ritual: the later Vedas.
The chronology of later Vedic developments is extremely vague,
but it probably encompasses the period from 1000 to 500 BC,
which are the dates of the Painted Grayware strata in the archaeological
sites of the western Ganges Valley. These excavations reflect
a culture still without writing but showing considerable advances
in civilization. Nothing, however, has been discovered from
sites of this period that throws much light on the religious
situation, and historians still must rely on the following texts
to describe this phase of the religion.

The Yajurveda and Samaveda.

The Yajurveda and Samaveda are completely subordinate to the liturgy. The Yajurveda contains the lines, usually in brief prose, with which the executive priest (adhvaryu) accompanies his ritual manipulations, addressing the implements he handles and the offering he pours and admonishing other priests to do their invocations. The Samaveda is a collection of verses from the Rigveda (and a few new ones) that were chanted with certain fixed melodies.

The Atharvaveda.
The Atharvaveda stands apart from other Vedic texts. It contains
both hymns and prose passages and is divided into 20 books.
Books 1-7 contain magical prayers for precise purposes: spells
for a long life, cures, curses, love charms, prayers for prosperity,
charms for kingship and Brahmanhood, and expiations for evil
committed. They reflect the magical-religious concerns of everyday
life and are on a different level than the Rigveda, which glorifies
the great gods and their liturgy. Books 8-12 contain similar
texts but also include cosmological hymns that continue those
of the Rigveda and provide a transition to the more complex
speculations of the Upanishads. Books 13-20 celebrate the cosmic
principle (book 13) and present marriage prayers (book 14),
funeral formulas (book 18), and other magical and ritual formulas.
This text is an extremely important source of knowledge of practical
religion and magic, particularly where it complements the one-sided
picture of the Rigveda. Many rites are also laid down in the
“Kaushikasutra” (manual of the Kaushika
family of priests) of the Atharvaveda.
(1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica)


Indian Philosophy: General considerations: ROLES OF SACRED TEXTS, MYTHOLOGY, AND THEISM
The role of the sacred texts in the growth of Indian philosophy
is different in each of the different systems. In those systems
that may be called adhyatmavidya, or sciences of spirituality, the sacred
texts play a much greater role than they do in the logical systems
(anviksikividya). In the case of the former, Shankara,
a leading Advaita Vedanta philosopher (c. 788-820), perhaps best laid down the principles: reasoning should be allowed
freedom only as long as it does not conflict with the scriptures.
In matters regarding supersensible reality, reasoning left to
itself cannot deliver certainty, for, according to Shankara,
every thesis established by reasoning may be countered by an
opposite thesis supported by equally strong, if not stronger,
reasoning. The sacred scriptures, embodying as they do the results
of intuitive experiences of seers, therefore, should be accepted
as authoritative, and reasoning should be made subordinate to
them.
Whereas the sacred texts thus continued to exercise some influence
on philosophical thinking, the influence of mythology declined
considerably with the rise of the systems. The myths of creation
and dissolution of the universe persisted in the theistic systems
but were transformed into metaphors and models. With the Nyaya
(problem of knowledge)-Vaishesika (analysis of nature) systems, for example, the model of a potter making pots determined much philosophical thinking, as did that of a magician conjuring up tricks in the Advaita (nondualist) Vedanta. The nirukta (etymology) of Yaska, a 5th-century-BC Sanskrit scholar, tells of various attempts to interpret difficult Vedic mythologies: the adhidaivata (pertaining to the deities), the aitihasika (pertaining to the tradition), the adhiyajna (pertaining to the sacrifices), and the adhyatmika (pertaining to the spirit). Such interpretations apparently prevailed in the Upanisads; the myths were turned into symbols, though some of them persisted as models and metaphors.
The issue of theism vis-agrave;-vis atheism, in the ordinary senses of the English words, played an important role in Indian thought. The ancient Indian tradition, however, classified the classical systems (darshanas)
into orthodox (astika) and unorthodox (nastika).
Astika does not mean “theistic,” nor does nastika
mean “atheistic.”
Panini, a 5th-century-BC grammarian, stated that
the former is one who believes in a transcendent world (asti
paralokah) and the latter is one who does not believe in
it (nasti paralokah). Astika may also mean one
who accepts the authority of the Vedas; nastika then
means one who does not accept that authority. Not all among
the astika philosophers, however, were theists, and even
if they were, they did not all accord the same importance to
the concept of God in their systems. The Samkhya system did not involve belief in the existence of God, without ceasing to be astika, and Yoga (a mental-psychological-physical meditation system) made room for God not on theoretical grounds but only on practical considerations. The Purva-Mimamsa
of Jaimini, the greatest philosopher of the Mimamsa school, posits various deities to account for the significance of Vedic rituals but ignores, without denying, the question of the existence of God. The Advaita Vedanta of Shankara
rejects atheism in order to prove that the world had its origin
in a conscious, spiritual being called Ishvara, or God, but in the long run regards the concept of Ishvara as a concept of lower order that becomes negated by a metaphysical knowledge of Brahman,
the absolute, nondual reality. Only the non-Advaita schools
of Vedanta and the Nyaya-Vaishesika
remain zealous theists, and of these schools, the god of the
Nyaya-Vaishesika school does not create
the eternal atoms, universals, or individual souls. For a truly
theistic conception of God, one has to look to the non-Advaita
schools of Vedanta, the Vaisnava, and the
Shaiva philosophical systems. Whereas Hindu religious
life continues to be dominated by these last-mentioned theistic
systems, the philosophies went their own ways, far removed from
that religious demand.
(1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica)


Vedic religion
also called VEDISM, the religion of the ancient Indo-European-speaking peoples who entered India about 1500 BC from the region of present-day Iran; it takes its name from the collections of sacred texts known as the Vedas. Vedism is the oldest stratum of religious activity in India for which there exist written materials. It was the starting point of Hinduism.
Knowledge of Vedic religion is derived from surviving texts
and also from certain rites that continue to be observed within
the framework of modern Hinduism. The earliest Vedic religious
beliefs included some held in common with other Indo-European-speaking
peoples, particularly with the early Iranians. Though it is
impossible to say when Vedism eventually gave way to classical
Hinduism, a decrease in literary activity among the Vedic schools
from the 5th century BC onward can be observed, and about this
time texts of Hindu character began to appear.

Vedic texts.
The only extant Vedic materials are the
texts known as the Vedas, which were written down over a period
of about 10 centuries, from about the 15th to the 5th century
BC, this being the period when Vedism was a living force. The
Vedic corpus is written in an archaic Sanskrit. The most important
texts are also the oldest ones. They are the four collections
(Samhita) that we call the Veda, or Vedas. The Rigveda, or “Veda of Verses,” the earliest of these, is composed
of about 1,000 hymns addressed to various deities, and mostly
arranged to serve the needs of the priestly families who were
the custodians of this sacred literature. The Yajurveda, or “Veda of Sacrificial Formulas,” contains prose formulas applicable to various cultic rites, along with verses intended for a similar purpose. The Samaveda, or “Veda of Chants” is made up of a selection of verses (drawn almost wholly from the Rigveda) that are provided with musical notation and are intended as an aid to the performance of sacred songs. Finally, the Atharvaveda is considered to be either of less worth than or of similar content to the three earlier collections.
To each Veda is attached a body of prose writings of later date called
Brahmanas (c. 800-600 BC), which are intended
to explain the ceremonial applications of the texts and the
origin and importance of the sacrificial rites for which the
Vedas were supposed to have been composed. Further appendices,
the Aranyakas (c. 600 BC) and the Upanishads (c. 700-500 BC), respectively expound the symbolism of the more difficult rites and speculate on the nature of the universe and man’s relation to it.
When Vedic religion gradually evolved into Hinduism between
the 6th and 2nd centuries BC, these texts taken collectively
became the most sacred literature of Hinduism. They are known as Sruti, or the divinely revealed section of Hindu literature, in contrast to the later strata of religious literature known as Smriti, or traditional texts based on human memory. But in modern Hinduism the Sruti, with the exception of the Upanishads and a few hymns of the Rigveda, is now little known, while some of the Smriti texts, notably the Bhagavadgita, are extremely influential.

Mythology.
Vedism was a polytheistic sacrificial religion that was very different from its successor, Hinduism. Vedism involved the worship of numerous male divinities who were connected with the sky and natural phenomena. The priests
who officiated at this worship were known as Brahmans. The complex
Vedic ceremonies, for which the hymns of the Rigveda were composed,
centred on the ritual sacrifice of animals and with the pressing
and drinking of a sacred intoxicating liquor
called soma (q.v.). The basic Vedic rite was performed by offering these edibles to a sacred fire, and this fire, which was itself deified as Agni, carried the oblations to the gods of the Vedic pantheon. The greatest deities of Vedism were at the same time material elements of the ritual offering: on the one hand, Agni (i.e., fire), which was equally the fire of the sun, of lightning,
of burning wood, and of that which made light for the purpose
of religious worship; and on the other hand, Soma, which was
simply the deified aspect of the liquid poured in the oblation.
The god of highest rank, however, was Indra, a warlike god who conquered innumerable human and demon enemies and vanquished the sun, among other epic feats. Another great deity was Varuna, who was the upholder of the cosmic and moral laws. Vedism had many other lesser deities, among whom were gods, demigods, and demons.

Ritual.
The ancient Vedic worshipers offered sacrifices to these gods in the hope that they in return would grant abundant numbers of cattle, good fortune, good health, long life, and male progeny, among other material benefits. To ensure the efficacy of their prayers, the people came to believe that their offerings could be made more acceptable to the gods if accompanied by songs of praise and other invocations of the gods’ might and power. Thus originated the rites described in the Vedas. Every sacrifice was performed on behalf of an individual, the yajamana (“sacrificer”), who bore the expenses.
The rites of Vedic sacrifice were relatively simple in the
early period, when the Rigveda was written down. They required
neither temples nor images; the ceremonies took place in an
open space that was consecrated afresh for every important occasion.
The altar (vedi) was a quadrangle marked out by hollowing or
slightly raising the ground. The agnyadheya (“installation
of the fire”) was a necessary preliminary to all the large public
rituals and was preceded by the patron’s fast. The sacrifices
themselves were of two major types–domestic (grhya)
and public (srauta, or vaitanika). The domestic
rites were observed by the householder himself or with the help
of a single priest and were performed over the domestic hearth
fire. Some occurred daily or monthly, and others accompanied
a particular event, such as the samskaras, sacraments marking
each stage of an upper-caste Indian’s life, from conception
to death. The grand rites performed in public, by contrast,
lasted several days or months and could usually be undertaken
only by wealthy men or kings. They required the services of
many priests and were usually performed at three fire-altars.
Most characteristic of the public ceremonies was the soma sacrifice,
which ensured the prosperity and well-being of both men and
gods. In this basic ritual, a lay sacrificer was first consecrated,
after which juice was pressed three times from the soma plant,
part being offered to the fire and part consumed by the priests.
Each of the three occasions was preceded and followed by recitations
and chants. Edibles such as meat, butter, milk, and barley cake
could also be offered to a sacred fire. Animal sacrifice–the
killing of a ram–existed either independently or as an integral
part of the sacrifice of soma. The celebrated ashvamedha (q.v.), or “horse-sacrifice,” was an elaborate variant of the soma sacrifice. Human sacrifice (purusamedha) is described and alluded to as a former
practice but may have been more symbolic than actual. The sacrifice
of the mythical giant Purusa, from whose dismembered limbs sprang up the four major castes, probably served as a model for the conjectured human sacrifices. Other ceremonies marked fixed dates of the lunar calendar, such as the full or new moon or the change of seasons.

Development and decline.
Over the centuries, the Vedic rites became increasingly complex and governed by innumerable rules, which were embodied, together with the hymns and prayer formulas used, in the Vedas. During the late Vedic period, the complexities of ritual were emphasized to such an extent that only highly
trained Brahmans and priests could carry them out correctly,
and it was maintained that if rites were improperly or incorrectly
performed, they could, unless rectified, bring about disaster
or death.
In reaction against this excessive emphasis on ritual (as well
as the growing power of the Brahmans), Vedic thought in its
late period became more speculative and philosophical in approach,
and more refined and subtle in quality. Much speculation was
directed toward the search for harmony and for correspondences
between macrocosm and microcosm, with the ultimate goal being
a reduction of reality to an all-embracing unity by way of successive
equations. In the Aranyakas, Vedic ritual is interpreted
in a symbolic rather than a literal manner, and the Upanishads
question the very assumptions on which Vedism rested. The crucial
idea that emerged from this period of intense questioning was
that of brahma, which tended to become a sort of guiding principle,
a sort of universal soul, in which the individual soul, or atman, is merged. The equation of atman (the self) with brahma (ultimate reality) became the basis of Hindu metaphysics. The spread in the 6th century BC of the related concepts of the
reincarnation of souls, of karma, and of the attainment of release
from this cycle by meditation rather than through sacrifice
marked the end of the Vedic period and the appearance of Hinduism.
The legacy of Vedic worship is apparent in several aspects
of modern Hinduism. The basic stratification of Vedic society
into four social classes, or varnas–Brahmans (priests or teachers),
Kshatriyas (rulers), Vaishyas (traders), and Shudras
(non-Aryan serfs)–by and large persisted in later Hinduism.
Sacrifices performed according to Vedic rites continue to be
performed in India occasionally, and the offering of oblations
to a sacred fire (homa) is an important element of much
modern Hindu worship The Hindu rite of initiation (upanayama) is another direct survival of Vedic tradition. Vishnu and Shiva, the major deities of classical Hinduism, also figured in Vedic mythology, though unimportantly.
(1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica)


Britannica Search: veda
Veda sacred hymn or verse composed in archaic Sanskrit and current
among the Indo-European-speaking peoples who entered India from
the Iranian regions. No definite date can be ascribed to the
composition of the Vedas, some of which possess high literary
merit, but the period of about 1500-1200 BC would be acceptable
to most scholars. The hymns . . .

Hinduism: Sacred texts: VEDAS: The components of the Veda.
The Veda is the product of the Aryan invaders of the Indian subcontinent and their descendants, although the original inhabitants (disdainfully called daacute;syus, or “slaves,” in the Veda) may very well have exerted an influence on the final product. The Veda represents the particular interests of . . .

Veda, meaning “Knowledge,” is a collective term for the sacred
scriptures of the Hindus. Since about the 5th century BC, the
Veda has been considered to be the creation of neither human
nor god; rather, it is regarded as the eternal Truth that was
in ancient times directly revealed to or “heard” by . . .

Atharvaveda
collection of hymns and incantations that forms part of the ancient sacred literature of India known as the Vedas.

also spelled RGVEDA, collection
of hymns that forms part of the ancient sacred literature of
India known as the Vedas. See Veda.

Yajurveda collection of mantras (sacred formulas) and verses that forms
part of the ancient sacred literature of India known as the
Vedas.

also called VEDISM, the religion of the ancient Indo-European-speaking
peoples who entered India about 1500 BC from the region of present-day
Iran; it takes its name from the collections of sacred texts
known as the Vedas. Vedism is the oldest stratum of religious
activity in India for which there exist . . .

It is generally thought among scholars that the Indus Valley
civilization was terminated by the arrival of bands of semi-nomadic
tribesmen, the Aryans, who descended into India from the northwest,
probably in the first half of the 2nd millennium BC. An important
aspect of Aryan religious life was the . . .
(1996, Encyclopaedia Britannica)


Hinduism: General nature and characteristic features: COMMON CHARACTERISTICS OF HINDU BELIEF
Nevertheless, it is possible to discern among the myriad forms
of Hinduism several common characteristics of belief and practice.

Authority of the Veda and the Brahman class.
Perhaps the defining characteristic of Hindu belief is the recognition of the Veda, the most ancient body of religious literature, as an absolute
authority revealing fundamental and unassailable truth. At the
same time, however, its content has long been practically unknown
to most Hindus, and it is seldom drawn upon for literal information
or advice. Still, it is venerated from a distance by every traditional
Hindu, and those Indians who reject its authority (such as Buddhists
and Jains) are regarded as unfaithful to their tradition. The
Veda is also regarded as the basis of all the later Shastraic
texts used in Hindu doctrine and practice. Parts of the Veda
are still quoted in essential Hindu rituals, and it is the source
of many enduring patterns of Hindu thought.
Also characteristic of Hinduism is the belief in the power of the
Brahmans, a priestly class possessing spiritual supremacy by
birth. As special manifestations of religious power and as bearers
and teachers of the Veda, Brahmans are considered to represent
the ideal of ritual purity and social prestige.
(1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica)

Hinduism: General nature and characteristic features: COMMON CHARACTERISTICS OF HINDU BELIEF
Nevertheless, it is possible to discern among the myriad forms
of Hinduism several common characteristics of belief and practice.

Authority of the Veda and the Brahman class.
Perhaps the defining characteristic of Hindu belief is the recognition of the Veda, the most ancient body of religious literature, as an absolute authority revealing fundamental and unassailable truth. At the same time, however, its content has long been practically unknown to most Hindus, and it is seldom drawn upon for literal information or advice. Still, it is venerated from a distance by every traditional Hindu, and those Indians who reject its authority (such as Buddhists and Jains) are regarded as unfaithful to their tradition. The Veda is also regarded as the basis of all the later Shastraic texts used in Hindu doctrine and practice. Parts of the Veda are still quoted in essential Hindu rituals, and it is the source of many enduring patterns of Hindu thought.
Also characteristic of Hinduism is the belief in the power of the Brahmans, a priestly class possessing spiritual supremacy by birth. As special manifestations of religious power and as bearers and teachers of the Veda, Brahmans are considered to represent the ideal of ritual purity and social prestige.
(1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica)


Vedic religion
also called VEDISM, the religion of the ancient Indo-European-speaking
peoples who entered India about 1500 BC from the region of present-day
Iran; it takes its name from the collections of sacred texts
known as the Vedas. Vedism is the oldest stratum of religious
activity in India for which there exist written materials. It
was the starting point of Hinduism.
Knowledge of Vedic religion is derived from surviving texts
and also from certain rites that continue to be observed within
the framework of modern Hinduism. The earliest Vedic religious
beliefs included some held in common with other Indo-European-speaking
peoples, particularly with the early Iranians. Though it is
impossible to say when Vedism eventually gave way to classical
Hinduism, a decrease in literary activity among the Vedic schools
from the 5th century BC onward can be observed, and about this
time texts of Hindu character began to appear.
Vedic texts.
The only extant Vedic materials are the texts known as the Vedas, which were written down over a period of about 10 centuries, from about the 15th to the 5th century BC, this being the period when Vedism was a living force. The
Vedic corpus is written in an archaic Sanskrit. The most important
texts are also the oldest ones. They are the four collections
(Samhita) that we call the Veda, or Vedas. The Rigveda, or “Veda of Verses,” the earliest of these, is composed of about 1,000 hymns addressed to various deities, and mostly arranged to serve the needs of the priestly families who were the custodians of this sacred literature. The Yajurveda, or “Veda of Sacrificial Formulas,” contains prose formulas applicable to various cultic rites, along with verses intended for a similar purpose. The Samaveda, or “Veda of Chants” is made up of a selection of verses (drawn almost wholly from the Rigveda) that are provided with musical notation and are intended as an aid to the performance of sacred songs. Finally, the Atharvaveda is considered to be either of less worth than or of similar content to the three earlier collections.
To each Veda is attached a body of prose writings of later date called Brahmanas (c. 800-600 BC), which are intended to explain the ceremonial applications of the texts and the origin and importance of the sacrificial rites for which the Vedas were supposed to have been composed. Further appendices, the Aranyakas (c. 600 BC) and the Upanishads (c. 700-500 BC), respectively expound the symbolism of the more difficult rites and speculate on the nature of the universe and man’s relation to it.
When Vedic religion gradually evolved into Hinduism between
the 6th and 2nd centuries BC, these texts taken collectively
became the most sacred literature of Hinduism. They are known
as Sruti, or the divinely revealed section of Hindu literature, in contrast to the later strata of religious literature known as Smriti, or traditional texts based on human memory. But in modern Hinduism the Sruti, with the exception of the Upanishads and a few hymns of the Rigveda, is now little known, while some of the Smriti texts, notably the Bhagavadgita, are extremely influential.

Mythology.
Vedism was a polytheistic sacrificial religion that was very different from its successor, Hinduism. Vedism involved the worship of numerous male divinities who
were connected with the sky and natural phenomena. The priests
who officiated at this worship were known as Brahmans. The complex
Vedic ceremonies, for which the hymns of the Rigveda were composed,
centred on the ritual sacrifice of animals and with the pressing
and drinking of a sacred intoxicating liquor called soma (q.v.).
The basic Vedic rite was performed by offering these edibles
to a sacred fire, and this fire, which was itself deified as Agni, carried the oblations to the gods of the Vedic pantheon. The greatest deities of Vedism were at the same time material elements of the ritual offering: on the one hand, Agni (i.e.,
fire), which was equally the fire of the sun, of lightning,
of burning wood, and of that which made light for the purpose
of religious worship; and on the other hand, Soma, which was
simply the deified aspect of the liquid poured in the oblation.
The god of highest rank, however, was Indra, a warlike god who conquered innumerable human and demon enemies and vanquished the sun, among other epic feats. Another great deity was Varuna, who was the upholder of the cosmic and moral laws. Vedism had many other lesser deities, among whom were gods, demigods, and demons.
Ritual.
The ancient Vedic worshipers offered sacrifices
to these gods in the hope that they in return would grant abundant
numbers of cattle, good fortune, good health, long life, and
male progeny, among other material benefits. To ensure the efficacy
of their prayers, the people came to believe that their offerings
could be made more acceptable to the gods if accompanied by
songs of praise and other invocations of the gods’ might and
power. Thus originated the rites described in the Vedas. Every
sacrifice was performed on behalf of an individual, the yajamana
(“sacrificer”), who bore the expenses.
The rites of Vedic sacrifice were relatively simple in the
early period, when the Rigveda was written down. They required
neither temples nor images; the ceremonies took place in an
open space that was consecrated afresh for every important occasion.
The altar (vedi) was a quadrangle marked out by hollowing or
slightly raising the ground. The agnyadheya (“installation
of the fire”) was a necessary preliminary to all the large public
rituals and was preceded by the patron’s fast. The sacrifices
themselves were of two major types–domestic (grhya)
and public (srauta, or vaitanika). The domestic
rites were observed by the householder himself or with the help
of a single priest and were performed over the domestic hearth
fire. Some occurred daily or monthly, and others accompanied
a particular event, such as the samskaras, sacraments marking
each stage of an upper-caste Indian’s life, from conception
to death. The grand rites performed in public, by contrast,
lasted several days or months and could usually be undertaken
only by wealthy men or kings. They required the services of
many priests and were usually performed at three fire-altars.
Most characteristic of the public ceremonies was the soma sacrifice,
which ensured the prosperity and well-being of both men and
gods. In this basic ritual, a lay sacrificer was first consecrated,
after which juice was pressed three times from the soma plant,
part being offered to the fire and part consumed by the priests.
Each of the three occasions was preceded and followed by recitations
and chants. Edibles such as meat, butter, milk, and barley cake
could also be offered to a sacred fire. Animal sacrifice–the
killing of a ram–existed either independently or as an integral
part of the sacrifice of soma. The celebrated ashvamedha (q.v.), or “horse-sacrifice,” was an elaborate variant of the soma sacrifice. Human sacrifice (purusamedha) is described and alluded to as a former
practice but may have been more symbolic than actual. The sacrifice
of the mythical giant Purusa, from whose dismembered
limbs sprang up the four major castes, probably served as a
model for the conjectured human sacrifices. Other ceremonies
marked fixed dates of the lunar calendar, such as the full or
new moon or the change of seasons.

Development and decline.
Over the centuries, the Vedic rites became
increasingly complex and governed by innumerable rules, which
were embodied, together with the hymns and prayer formulas used,
in the Vedas. During the late Vedic period, the complexities
of ritual were emphasized to such an extent that only highly
trained Brahmans and priests could carry them out correctly,
and it was maintained that if rites were improperly or incorrectly
performed, they could, unless rectified, bring about disaster
or death.
In reaction against this excessive emphasis on ritual (as well
as the growing power of the Brahmans), Vedic thought in its
late period became more speculative and philosophical in approach,
and more refined and subtle in quality. Much speculation was
directed toward the search for harmony and for correspondences
between macrocosm and microcosm, with the ultimate goal being
a reduction of reality to an all-embracing unity by way of successive
equations. In the Aranyakas, Vedic ritual is interpreted
in a symbolic rather than a literal manner, and the Upanishads
question the very assumptions on which Vedism rested. The crucial
idea that emerged from this period of intense questioning was
that of brahma, which tended to become a sort of guiding principle, a sort of universal soul, in which the individual soul, or atman, is merged. The equation of atman (the self) with brahma (ultimate reality) became the basis of Hindu metaphysics. The spread in the 6th century BC of the related concepts of the reincarnation of souls, of karma, and of the attainment of release from this cycle by meditation rather than through sacrifice marked the end of the Vedic period and the appearance of Hinduism.
The legacy of Vedic worship is apparent in several aspects
of modern Hinduism. The basic stratification of Vedic society
into four social classes, or varnas–Brahmans (priests or teachers),
Kshatriyas (rulers), Vaishyas (traders), and Shudras
(non-Aryan serfs)–by and large persisted in later Hinduism.
Sacrifices performed according to Vedic rites continue to be
performed in India occasionally, and the offering of oblations
to a sacred fire (homa) is an important element of much
modern Hindu worship. The Hindu rite of initiation (upanayama) is another direct survival of Vedic tradition. Vishnu and Shiva, the major deities of classical Hinduism, also figured in Vedic mythology, though unimportantly.
(1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica)

Vedanta
one of the six orthodox systems (darshans) of Indian philosophy
and the one that forms the basis of most modern schools of Hinduism.
The term Vedanta means in Sanskrit the “conclusion” (anta)
of the Vedas, the earliest sacred literature of India; it applies
to the Upanishads, which were elaborations of the Vedas, and to the
school that arose out of the “study” (mimamsa) of the Upanishads.
Thus Vedanta is also referred to as Vedanta Mimamsa (“Reflection on Vedanta”), Uttara-Mimamsa (“Reflection on the Latter Part of the Vedas”), and Brahma-Mimamsa
(“Reflection on Brahma”).
The three fundamental Vedanta texts are: the Upanishads
(the most favoured being the longer and older ones such as the
Brhadaranyaka, the Chandogya, the Taittiriya,
and the Katha); the Brahma-sutras (also called Vedanta-sutras), which are very brief, even one-word interpretations of the doctrine
of the Upanishads; and the famous poetic dialogue, the
Bhagavadgita (“Song of the Lord”), which, because of
its immense popularity, was drawn upon for support of the doctrines
found in the Upanishads.
No single interpretation of the texts emerged, and several
schools of Vedanta developed, differentiated by their
conceptions of the nature of the relationship and the degree
of identity between the individual self (atman) and the absolute
(brahma). These range from the nondualism (Advaita); q.v.) of the 8th-century philosopher Shankara to the theism (Vishistadvaita;
q.v.) of the 11th-12th-century thinker Ramanuja
and the dualism (Dvaita; q.v.) of the 13th-century thinker Madhva.
The Vedanta schools do, however, hold in common a number
of beliefs; transmigration of the self (samsara) and the desirability
of release from the cycle of rebirths; the authority of the
Veda on the means of release; that Brahman is both the material
(upadana) and the instrumental (nimitta) cause
of the world; and that the self (atman) is the agent of its
own acts (karma) and therefore the recipient of the fruits,
or consequences, of action (phala). All the Vedanta
schools unanimously reject both the heterodox (nastika)
philosophies of Buddhism and Jainism and the conclusions of
the other orthodox (astika) schools (Nyaya, Vaishesika,
Samkhya, Yoga, and, to some extent, the Purva-Mimamsa).
The influence of Vedanta on Indian thought has been
profound, so that it may be said that, in one or another of
its forms, Hindu philosophy has become Vedanta. Although
the preponderance of texts by Advaita scholastics has in the
West given rise to the erroneous impression that Vedanta
means Advaita, the nondualistic Advaita is but one of many Vedanta
schools.
(1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica)


Indian Philosophy: Historical development of Indian philosophy: FURTHER DEVELOPMENTS OF THE SYSTEM: Vedanta.: Varieties of Vedanta schools.

Though Vedanta is frequently referred to as one darshana
(viewpoint), there are, in fact, radically different schools
of Vedanta; what binds them together is common adherence
to a common set of texts. These texts are the Upanisads,
the Vedanta-sutras, and the Bhagavadgita–known as the three prasthanas (the basic scriptures, or texts) of the Vedanta. The founders of the various schools of Vedanta have all substantiated
their positions by commenting on these three source books. The
problems and issues around which their differences centre are
the nature of Brahman; the status of the phenomenal world; the
relation of finite individuals to the Brahman; and the nature
and the means to moksa, or liberation. The main schools
are: Shankara’s unqualified nondualism (shuddhadvaita);
Ramanuja’s qualified nondualism (vishistadvaita),
Madhva’s dualism (dvaita); Bhaskara’s doctrine of identity and difference (bhedabheda); and the schools of Nimbarka and Vallabha, which assert both identity and difference though with different emphasis on either of the two aspects. From the religious point of view, Shankara extolled metaphysical knowledge as the sole means to liberation and regarded even the concept of God as false; Ramanuja recommended the path of bhakti combined with knowledge and showed a more tolerant attitude toward the tradition of Vedic ritualism; and Madhva, Nimbarka, and Vallabha all propounded a personalistic theism in which love and devotion to a personal God are rated
highest. Although Shankara’s influence on Indian
philosophy could not be matched by these other schools of Vedanta,
in actual religious life the theistic Vedanta schools
have exercised a much greater influence than the abstract metaphysics
of Shankara.
(1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica)

vedan€ (vedana)
knowledge of Brahman. (Advaita and Visistadvaita, Glossario)

Ved€nta-deika (Vedanta-desika)
” importante maestro r…-r€m€nuja. Notizia su lui e la sua filosofia possono essere trovate su”Advaita and Visistadvaita” di Srinivasacari. Egli devolse la sua vita a combattere la filosofia mayavada.
” also called VENKATANATHA (b. 1268, Tuppule, near Kanchipuram, Vijayanagar, India–d. 1370, Srirangam), leading theologian of the Vishistadvaita (Qualified Nondualism) school of philosophy and founder of the Vadakalai, a subsect of the Shrivaisnavas, a religious movement of South India.Vedantadeshika was born into a distinguished Shrivaisnava family that followed the teachings of Ramanuja, an 11th-12th-century saint. A precocious child, Vedantadeshika was said to have been taken at the age of five to meet the sect’s leader, Vatsya Varadacarya, who blessed him, saying he would in time be a great teacher and repudiate all false philosophers. Vedantadeshika married and had a family but lived on alms in order to devote himself fully to his philosophic and literary efforts. He was a prolific writer in both Sanskrit and Tamil; his more than 100 works include commentaries on Vaisnava scriptures; Nyaya-parishuddhi, a comprehensive work on Vishistadvaita logic; Yadavabhyudaya, a poetic work on the life of Krishna; Sankalpa-suryodaya, an allegorical drama; and devotional hymns.
According to Vedantadeshika’s interpretation of prapatti (surrender to the grace of God), some effort is required on the part of the worshiper to secure God’s grace, just as the baby monkey must hold to its mother (the markata-nyaya, or the “analogy of the monkey”). This view–together with ritual and linguistic differences–became the basis for the split between the two subsects, the Vadakalai and the Tengalai, who held that God’s grace is unconditioned and that the human soul is as unassertive as a kitten carried by its mother. (1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica, via Internet)
Bibliografia:
“Advaita and Visistadvaita” di Srinivasacari
1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica, via Internet

vibh™ti (vibhuti)
glorious manifestations of the Lord. (Advaita and Visistadvaita, Glossario)

Vidyaranya
” vedi “Madhavacarya”

vik€ra (vikara)
change. (Advaita and Visistadvaita, Glossario)

vin€a (vinasa)
destruction. (Advaita and Visistadvaita, Glossario)

viaya (visaya)
l’argomento
Madukyopanisad (con Karika di Gaudapada e comento di Sankaracarya – BUN SI VII a 14 – pag.4)

vieaŠa (visesana)
qualification per proprium. (Advaita and Visistadvaita, Glossario)

vieya (visesya)
substance. (Advaita and Visistadvaita, Glossario)

vii˜€dvaita (visistadvaita)
” dottrina promossa da Ramanuja
(Sanskrit: Nonduality of the Qualified), one of the principal schools of Vedanta, an orthodox philosophy of India. This school grew out of the Vaisnava (worship of the god Vishnu [Visnu]) devotional movement prominent in South India from the 7th century on. One of the early Brahmans (class of priests) who began to guide the movement was Nathamuni (10th century), head priest of the temple at Shrirangam (in modern Tamil Nadu state). He was succeeded by Yamuna (11th century), who wrote some philosophic treatises but no commentaries.
The most towering figure is his successor, Ramanuja, or Ramanujacarya (master Ramanuja, c. 1050-1137), who wrote commentaries on the Brahma-sutras (the Shribhasya, “Beautiful Commentary”) and on the Bhagavadgita; and a treatise on the Upanisads, the Vedarthasamgraha (“Summary of the Meaning of the Veda”). Ramanuja was the first of the Vedanta thinkers who made the identification of a personal God with the Brahman of the Upanisads and the Vedanta-sutras the cornerstone of his system. As a personal God, Brahman possesses all the good qualities in a perfect degree, and Ramanuja does not tire of mentioning them. He interprets the relationship between the unitary and infinite Brahman and the plural and finite world in a novel way, which, however, has some support in the Upanisads. For him the relation between the infinite and the finite is like that between the soul and the body. Hence nonduality is maintained, while differences can still be stated. Soul and matter are totally dependent on God for their existence, as is the body on the soul.
God has two modes of being, as cause and as product. As cause, he is in his essence qualified only by his perfections; as product, he has as his body the souls and the phenomenal world. There is a pulsating rhythm in these periods of creation and absorption. For Ramanuja, release is not a negative separation from transmigration, or series of rebirths, but, rather, the joy of the contemplation of God. This joy is attained by a life of exclusive devotion (bhakti) to God, singing his praise, performing adulatory acts in temple and private worship, and constantly dwelling on his perfections. God will return his grace, which will assist the devotee in gaining release.
Vishistadvaita flourished after Ramanuja, but a schism developed over the importance of God’s grace. For the southern, Sanskrit-using school, the Vadakalai, God’s grace in gaining release is important, but man himself should make his best efforts. This school is represented by the thinker Venkatanatha, who was known by the honorific name of Vedantadeshika (Teacher of Vedanta). The northern, Tamil-using school, the Tenkalai, holds that God’s grace alone is necessary.
The influence of Vishistadvaita spread far to the north, where it played a role in the devotional renaissance of Vaisnavism, particularly under
the Bengal devotee Caitanya (1485-1533). In southern India the
philosophy itself is still an important intellectual influence. (1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica)

Bibliografia:
“Advaita and Visistadvaita”, di Srinivasa chari

Visnu

Visnu-dharma
trattato in sei capitoli. Aparoksanubhuti, pag. 120 e anche altri, ci sono citazioni.

vitaŠda (vitanda)???
” forma di discussione tesa a distruggere l’opponente senza alcun interesse a stabilire nulla di positivo
Bibliografia:
“Advaita and Visistadvaita” di Srinivasacari (pag.4)
Sat-sanga n.?, art. di Manonath dasa

vivarta-v€da (vivarta-vada)
the thoery that the world is an illusory appearance of Brahman. (Advaita and Visistadvaita, Glossario)

Vivekananda
original name NARENDRANATH DATTA, DATTA also spelled DUTT (b. Jan. 12, 1863, Calcutta–d. July 4, 1902, Calcutta), Hindu spiritual leader and reformer who attempted to combine Indian spirituality with Western material progress, maintaining that the two supplemented and complemented one another. His Absolute was man’s own higher self; to labour for the benefit of mankind was the noblest endeavour.
Born into an upper-middle-class Kayastha family in Bengal,
he was educated at a Western-style university where he was exposed
to Western philosophy, Christianity, and science. Social reform
was given a prominent place in Vivekananda’s thought, and he
joined the Brahmo Samaj (Society of Brahma), dedicated to eliminating
child marriage and illiteracy and determined to spread education
among women and the lower castes. He later became the most notable
disciple of Ramakrishna, who demonstrated the essential unity
of all religions. Always stressing the universal and humanistic
side of the Vedas as well as belief in service rather than dogma,
Vivekananda attempted to infuse vigour into Hindu thought, placing
less emphasis on the prevailing pacifism and presenting Hindu
spirituality to the West. He was an activating force behind
the Vedanta (interpretation of the Upanisads) movement
in the United States and England. In 1893 he appeared in Chicago
as a spokesman for Hinduism at the World’s Parliament of Religions
and so captivated the assembly that a newspaper account described
him as “an orator by divine right and undoubtedly the greatest
figure at the Parliament.” Thereafter he lectured throughout
the United States and England, making converts to the Vedanta
movement.
On his return to India with a small group of Western disciples in 1897, Vivekananda founded the Ramakrishna Mission (q.v.) at the monastery of Belur Math on the Ganges River near Calcutta. Self-perfection and service were his ideals, and the order continued to stress them. He adapted and made relevant to the 20th century the very highest ideals of the Vedantic religion, and although he lived only two years into that century he left the mark of his personality on East
and West alike. (1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica)

vividi€ (vividisa)
desire to know brahman. (Advaita and Visistadvaita, Glossario)

vtti-jñ€na (vrtti-jnana)
knowledge of the psychosis

vyavah€ra (vyavahara)
empirical usage. (Advaita and Visistadvaita, Glossario)

vy€varta (vyavarta)
changing. (Advaita and Visistadvaita, Glossario)

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

VaikuŠ˜ha-dh€ma (Vaikuntha-dhama)
” vedi VaikuŠ˜ha. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

VaikuŠ˜ha-loka (VaikuŠ˜ha-loka)
” vedi VaikuŠ˜ha. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

Vaiamp€yana (Vaisampayana)
” uno dei discepoli di Vy€sa. Narrò il Mah€-bh€rata in occasione del sacrificio dei serpenti di Janamejaya. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

vaiŠava (vaisnava)
” devoto di ViŠu o KŠa. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

Vallabha (Vallabha)
” importante Vaisnava del sedicesimo secolo. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

V€madeva (Vamadeva)
” personaggio della letteratura vedica. E’ menzionato nel Ved€nta-s™tra. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

V€mana
” detto anche V€manadeva, è un’importante incarnazione di ViŠu che discese sulla Terra sotto forma di un br€hmaŠa nano. Possiede un pianeta nell’universo spirituale. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

Var€ha (Varaha)
” incarnazione divina che apparve come un cinghiale. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

varŠa (varna)
” ognuna delle quattro divisioni della società conformemente alle funzioni naturali svolte dai cittadini. Queste sono: br€hmaŠa, katriya, vaiya e ™dra. L’equilibrio e l’armonia della società dipendono dal rispetto delle norme che governano i varŠa. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

Vasudeva (Vasudeva)
” il padre di KŠa. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

Vasudeva (Vasudeva)
” una delle espansioni di KŠa. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

V€sudeva
” uno dei nomi di KŠa che significa “figlio di Vasudeva”. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

v€tsalya (vatsalya)
” parentela. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

v€tsalya-rasa (vatsalya-rasa)
” relazione spirituale in cui il devoto considera il Signore come un membro della propria famiglia (vedi Nanda o Yaod€). (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

Veda (Veda)
” vasta raccolta di libri compilati da Vy€sadeva. E’ la conoscenza più completa ed esatta che il genere umano abbia mai avuto. I testi fondamentali sono quattro: lo Yajus, il g, il S€ma e l’Atharva. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

Ved€nta (Vedanta)
” one of the six orthodox systems (darshans) of Indian philosophy and the one that forms the basis of most modern schools of Hinduism. The term Vedanta means in Sanskrit the “conclusion” (anta) of the Vedas, the earliest sacred literature of India; it applies to the Upanishads, which were elaborations of the Vedas, and to the school that arose out of the “study” (mimamsa) of the Upanishads. Thus Vedanta is also referred to as Vednta-Mimamsa (“Reflection on Vedanta”), Uttara-Mimamsa (“Reflection on the Latter Part of the Vedas”), and Brahma-Mimamsa (“Reflection on Brahma”). The three fundamental Vedanta texts are: the Upanishads (the most favoured being the longer and older ones such as the Brhadaranyaka, the Chandogya, the Taittiriya, and the Katha); the Brahma-sutras (also called Vedanta-sutras), which are very brief, even one-word interpretations of the doctrine of the Upanishads; and the famous poetic dialogue, the Bhagavadgita (“Song of the Lord”), which, because of its immense popularity, was drawn upon for support of the doctrines found in the Upanishads.
No single interpretation of the texts emerged, and several schools of Vedanta developed, differentiated by their conceptions of the nature of the relationship and the degree of identity between the individual self (atman) and the absolute (brahma). These range from the nondualism (Advaita; q.v.) of the 8th-century philosopher Shankara to the theism (visistadvaita) q.v.) of the 11th-12th- century thinker Ramanuja and the dualism (Dvaita; q.v.) of the 13th-century thinker Madhva.
The Vedanta schools do, however, hold in common a number of beliefs; transmigration of the self (samsara) and the desirability of release from the cycle of rebirths; the authority of the Veda on the means of release; that Brahman is both the material (upadana) and the instrumental (nimitta) cause of the world; and that the self (atman) is the agent of its own acts (karma) and therefore the recipient of the fruits, or consequences, of action (phala). All the Vedanta schools unanimously reject both the heterodox (nastika) philosophies of Buddhism and Jainism and the conclusions of the other orthodox (astika) schools (Nyaya, Vaishesika, Samkhya, Yoga, and, to some extent, the Purva-Mimamsa).
The influence of Vedanta on Indian thought has been profound, so that it may be said that, in one or another of its forms, Hindu philosophy has become Vedanta. Although the preponderance of texts by Advaita scholastics has in the West given rise to the erroneous impression that Vedanta means Advaita, the nondualistic Advaita is but one of many Vedanta schools. (1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica, via Internet, voce Vedanta)

Ved€nta-s™tra (Vedanta-sutra)
” importante testo filosofico vedico. E’ considerato il commento naturale ai Veda. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

vibhinn€ˆa (vibhinnamsa)
” espansioni parziali della potenza di Dio: sono le j…va, le anime spirituali individuali. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

vigraha (vigraha)
” forma. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

vikarma (vikarma)
” azioni che non tengono conto dei consigli delle scritture e pertanto conducono alla degradazione e alla frustrazione. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

vir€˜a-r™pa (virata-rupa)
” la forma universale del Signore, nella quale è possibile vedere contemporaneamente tutto ciò che esiste. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

ViŠu (Visnu)
” uno dei nomi di KŠa, significa “sostegno di tutto ciò che esiste”. E’ anche la divinità che predomina il sattva-guna. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

ViŠu-avat€ra (Visnu-avatara)
” manifestazioni divine, incarnazioni di Dio. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

ViŠusv€m… (Visnusvami)
maestro spirituale VaiŠava

ViŠu-tattva (Visnu-tattva)
” manifestazioni divine, incarnazioni di Dio. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

Vivan€tha Cakravart… µh€kura (Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura)
” saggio e santo VaiŠava. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

Vnd€vana (Vrndavana)
” villaggio dell’India (90 miglia a sud-est di Delhi, nel distretto di Mathur€) dove, circa 5.000 anni fa, KŠa visse e attuò i Suoi divertimenti trascendentali in compagnia dei puri devoti. Vnd€vana è anche nel cielo spirituale, e tra le due non vi è differenza. Tale visione è tuttavia possibile solo a colui che si è completamente purificato. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

Vnd€vana d€s µh€kur (Vrndavana das Thakur)
” l’autore del Caitanya-bh€gavata. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

Vy€sa (Vyasa)
” il saggiò che diede ordine e mise per iscritto i Veda. Altri nomi: Vy€sadeva, KŠa Dvaip€yana, Veda Vy€sa, B€dar€yaŠa. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

Vye‰ka˜a Bha˜˜a (Vyenkata Bhatta)
” devoto vissuto attorno al 1500. Era un importante discepolo di Caitanya e padre di Gop€la Bha˜˜a Gosv€m…. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

Vacaspatimishra
(970 dc) vg 132
– dette interpretazioni chiamate bhamati degli scritti di shankara

* vacaspatimishra (circa 800) cerca di dimostrare che tutti i sistemi non erano altro che impalcature, tutte della stessa forza e tutti egualmente validi, erette da pensatori di differenti capacità, epr giungre a un quadro totale della realtà, secondo le attitudini del singolo studente. (vedi vg 63)
vacaspati-mishra: vissuto verso l’800, cercò di dimostrare come tutti i vari sistemi non sono affatto sistemi diversi, bensì parte di una medesima impalcatura, che si prefigge lo scopo di reggere il medesimo edificio ideologico, visto da prospettive diverse, e dove tutti hanno la stessa forza e la stessa validità. Questi sistemi sono stati eretti per comunicare un quadro totale della realtà, anche tenendo conto di un elemento importante, e cioè l’attitudine e il diverso grado di capacità del singolo studente.

* vajra: il fulmine, l’arma preferita di indra

* vajrayana: setta buddhista vedi bu-

* vaikalika bhoga: offerta alle murti che si svolge alle ore 15,40

* vaikuntha: i pianeti spirituali
lett. senza ansietà. il regno spirituale, dove tutto è saccidananda
– vedi glossario di the seventh gosvami, biografia di bhaktivinoda thakur

* vaisampayana: discepolo di vyasa, narrò il maha-bharata al sacrificio dei serpenti di Janamejaya

* vaisheshika: per le teorie vedi i-11
vaisheshika di Kanada vaisheshika un darshana: Il termine vaisheshika deriva invece dal sanskrito “vishesha”, che vuol dire “differenza”, e ha lo scopo di stabilire le differenze specifiche che esistono fra tutti gli oggetti che ci capita di incontrare nella realtà, sia in quella esterna che in quella interna. Particolare attenzione viene data all’analisi delle particelle che compongono la natura materiale, e cioè all’atomo. Utilizzando questo metodo di analisi, il vaisheshika mira a raggiungere una soluzione ai problemi dell’esistenza umana, e anche alle numerose questioni metafisiche.

vaishnava
devoto di vishnu o krishna
Vaishnava non dipende dalla casta né da altre cose(cit. Prabhupada Srila Sarasvatai Thakura di Bhaktikusum Sraman, pag.120)
da Hari Bhakti Vilasa, rproprio come il metallo di una campana può essere trasformata …. attraverso iniziazione, così(cit. Prabhupada Srila Sarasvati Thakura di Bhaktikusum Sraman, pag.218).
vedi anche (cit. Prabhupada Srila Sarasvati Thakura di Bhaktikusum Sraman, pag.343).
l’adorazione di Vaishnava è anche superiore a quella di Vishnu (cit. Prabhupada Srila Sarasvatai Thakura di Bhaktikusum Sraman, pag.340)
– vedi glossario di the seventh gosvami, biografia di bhaktivinoda thakur
i tre gradi del devoto: uttama, madhyama e kamnistha (cit. Prabhupada Srila Sarasvati Thakura di Bhaktikusum Sraman, pag.343).

vaishnavismo
La cultura Vaishnava

vaishnavismo ramanuja
vedi v-5 per alcune note.

* vaishya: uno dei quattro varna
agricoltori e commercianti; provvedono alle necessità vitali della società e proteggono gli animali, in particolare la mucca
loro doveri vedi vishnu-purana 235

* valala: il nome che Bhima assunse durante il periodo in incognito

* valmiki: il saggio che scrisse il Ramayana p73 * vamanadeva:

* vana parva: uno dei capitoli del maha-bharata

* vanaprastha: 1. Terza tappa della vita spirituale; periodo di pellegrinaggio in vari luoghi santi per distaccarsi dalla vita familiare e sociale per prepararsi al sannyasa
2. colui che vive secondo le regole di questo ashrama
vedi vishnu-purana 238

* vanara: il popolo di scimmie che aiutò Rama a ritrovare sita

* vandana, offrire preghiere

* varanavata: la città dove i pandava furono mandati per essere arsi vivi nella loro casa

* varna: ognuna delle quattro divisioni della società secondo le funzioni naturali che vi svolgono i suoi membri
e sono: Brahmana, kshatriya, vaishya e shudra
l’equilibrio e l’armonia nella società dipendono dal rispetto delle norme che governano i varna

* varnashrama: istituzione vedica che imposta la struttura sociale nel rispetto delle norme dei vari varna e ashrama.
E’ stato costituito da krishna stesso allo scopo di facilitare la purificazione di tutti

* varnashrama-dharma: le regole del varnashrama

* varuna: il Deva dell’oceano

* varuna-astra: l’arma presieduta da varuna; ha come effetto di sprigionare un’enorme quantità d’acqua

* vashistha: un grande saggio

* vasu: otto grandi esseri celesti

* vasubandhu scrisse l’abhidharma-kosha, il fondamento dogmatico del buddhismo hinayana. poi passò al mahayana (vedi von glasenapp pag. 59)
– visse circa tra il 280 e 500 dc vg 86
– il più sapiente tra i buddhisti

* vasudeva: il padre di krishna

* vasudeva: 1. uno dei nomi di krishna. significa figlio di vasudeva.
2. emanazione plenaria di krishna che sta a vaikuntha
3. livello spirituale di chi comprenmde chi è Dio e come attraverso le sue energie egli agisce

* vasugupta: fondò un sistema shivaita, detto “dottrina del riconoscimento in shiva”, che considerava il processo del divenire cosmico come l’oggettivizzazione del pensiero dell’unico assoluto universale

* vasuki: il re dei Naga

* vayu: il Deva del vento

* veda: una vasta raccolta di libri compilati da vyasadeva. E’ la conoscenza più completa ed esatta che il genere umano abbia mai avuto
sono quattro: yajus, rig, sama e atharva
1) lo yajus tratta delle formule necessarie allo svolgimento dei sacrifici
2) il rig degli inni di lode ai numerosi deva e personalità divine
3) il sama delle funzioni liturgiche (sama significa melodie)
4) l’atharva degli aspetti tecnici che riguardano i sacrifici p73 – vedi glossario di the seventh gosvami, biografia di bhaktivinoda thakur

* veda: uno dei discepoli di ayoda-dhaumya vedi v-7

* vedanta: vedi vedanta-sutra

* vedanta-sutra: importante testo filosofico vedico
altri nomi: Brahma-sutra e Catur-lakshani
costituito di 559 (??) sutra che trattano della verità assoluta. E’ la conclusione dei principi vedici
– vedi glossario di the seventh gosvami, biografia di bhaktivinoda thakur

* veda vyasa: vedi vyasa

* vibhishana: l’anziano re di Lanka; era il fratello minore di ravana e kumbhakarna

* vicitravirya: il figlio di shantanu e satyavati. leggi il mb

* vidhamukti: ??? vg 139

* vidhi: prescrizioni

* vidura: un’incarnazione di Dharma, nacque come il fratello minore di Dritarashtra

vidya
: conoscenza, saggezza
– le quattro vidya sono: yajnavidya, conoscenza del rituale religioso; mahavidya, conoscenza dell’adorazione dei principi femminili, o tantrici; guhyavidya, conoscenza dei mantra, preghiere mistiche e incantesimi; atmavidya, conoscenza delloo spirito, che è la vera conoscenza

Vidya bhagavatadhi

Vidyapati
celebre poeta indiano; fa una ricerca

* vijaya: uno dei due guardiani dei pianeti vaikuntha maledetti dai kumara

* vijnana: pratica scientifica della conoscenza

* vijnanabhikshu: (1550 circa) filosofo indiano di cui non si sa molto; cercò di interpretare i sei sistemi ortodossi come membra di un’unica dottrina, procedente per gradi. la verità assoluta è fornita dalle scritture originali. La teoria di shankara è da rigettare (vedi von glasenapp pag. 72 e 73)

vikarna: era uno dei pochi figli virtuosi di Dritarashtra

vikartana: è un nome di vivasvan

* vina: strumento musicale a corde. Era usato da Narada per cantare le glorie di krishna

* vinda: un principe che combattè dalla parte dei kurava

vipralambha
separazione da un devoto. vedi Prabhupada Srila Sarasvati Thakura, pag. 218)

* virata: il re di matsya che combattè per i pandava

* virata parva: uno dei capitoli del maha-bharata

* virtù: vedi sattva-guna

* vishaya, l’oggetto dell’asserzione; modello mimamsa di analisi filosofica

* vishnu: dalla radice vis, che significa entrare, penetrare, pervadere
– il nome allude al suo entrare nell’universo
1. Nome di krishna, il sostegno di tutto ciò che esiste
2. Nome generico dei diversi purusha-avatara. Uno di questi è la divinità di sattva-guna
– vedi glossario di the seventh gosvami, biografia di bhaktivinoda thakur

* vishnu-avatara: manifestazioni divine, incarnazioni di dio

* vishnu purana: è parlato da parashara a maitreya, è diviso in 6 libri
primo: 22 p73 secondo: 15
terzo: 18
quarto: 24
quinto: 38
sesto: 8

totale: 125
In tutto è composto di 23.000 shloka

* vishnu-smriti: vg 131

* vishnusvami: maestro spirituale vaishnava

* vishnu-tattva: manifestazioni divine, incarnazioni di dio

* vishoka: l’auriga di Bhima

visva: mondo

Vishvakarma: l’architetto dei deva

* vishvamitra: uno dei più grandi saggi, protagonista di imprese sovrumane

* vishvanatha cakravarti thakura: saggio e santo vaishnava
– vedi glossario di the seventh gosvami, biografia di bhaktivinoda thakur

* vishvarupa: la forma universale di krishna. Con questa visione Egli mostra simultaneamente che il creato esiste nel suo corpo infinito

* vishvarupa: saggio (figlio di tvashta) che divenne il guru di indra; poi fu ucciso dal suo stesso discepolo (vedi shrimad-bhagavatam)

Visva-vaishnava-raja sabha
Per la sua storia, vedi Prabhupada Srila Sarasvatai Thakura di Bhaktikusum Sraman, da pag.355)

* vishvavasu vedi v-7

* vivarana: commento al brahma-sutra-bhashya di shankara scritto da prakashatma (1100 dc)

* vivasvan: il nome proprio del Deva del sole
vikartana è un nome di vivasvan

* vivimsati: uno dei figli di dritarashtra

* vraja: vedi vrindavana
– vedi glossario di the seventh gosvami, biografia di bhaktivinoda thakur

Vrajamandala
il suo perimetro è di 168 miglia (cit. Prabhupada Srila Sarasvatai Thakura di Bhaktikusum Sraman, pag.386)
La lista e la descrizione dei luoghi santi di Vrajamandala su “Prabhupada Srila Sarasvati Thakur” di Bhaktikusum Sraman (pag. 386)

Vrika
combattè dalla parte dei pandava

Vrikodara
uno dei nomi di Bhima

* vrindavana: altro nome vraja
krishna vi trascorse la sua infanzia
villaggio dell’india dove, circa 5.000 anni fa, krishna rivelò i suoi divertimenti trascendentali in compagnia dei puri devoti. Non c’è differenza tra questo luogo terreno e goloka vrindavana, ma tale visione è possibile solo a colui che si è completamente purificato
– è a 90 miglia sud-est di delhi nel distretto di mathura
– vedi glossario di the seventh gosvami, biografia di bhaktivinoda thakur

* vrindavana das thakur: l’autore del caitanya-bhagavata
– vedi glossario di the seventh gosvami, biografia di bhaktivinoda thakur

* vrishaparva: antico re degli asura, che poi si dedicò alla realizzazione spirituale

* vrishasena: il figlio di karna

* vrishni: la stirpe in cui krishna apparve

* vritra: un grande asura ucciso da indra

* vyasa: il saggiò che dette ordine e mise per iscritto i veda
appare sempre alla fine di dvapara-yuga p73 generò dritarashtra, pandu e vidura
altri nomi: vyasadeva, krishna dvaipayana, veda vyasa
– lista dei ventotto vyasa già trascorsi in questo manvantara vedi vishnu purana da pag.219
– dall’inizio del periodo di vaivasvata manu 28 vyasa si sono succeduti, e sono:
1. brahma
2. vaivashvata manu
3. ushana
4. brihaspati
5. savitri
6. yama
7. indra
8. vashishtha
9. sarasvata
10. tridhama
11. trivrisha
12. bharadvaja
13. antariksha
14. vapra
15. trayyaruna (vedi surya-vamsha)
16. dhananjaya
17. kritanjaya
18. rina
19. bharadvaja
20. Gotama
21. uttama (o haryatma)
22. vena (o rajashrava)
23. somashushmapana (o trinavindu)
24. riksha (valmiki, il discendente di bhrigu)
25. shakti (il padre di parashara)
26. parashara
27. jaratkaru
28. krishna dvaipayana
29. ashvatthama (il figlio di drona) sarà il prossimo

* vyasadeva: vedi vyasa

* vyasasana: il seggi dove si siede il maestro spirituale

* vyenkata bhatta: importante santo, discepolo di caitanya. visse attorno al 1500

* vyuha: l’organizzazione strategica degli eserciti

– fluttuazioni (vritti) vg 158

– poteri mistici (vibhuti) vg 160

– vatsyayana: filosofo buddhista vedi vg 60

senza (vinaa)
vinaa senza o fuori

– vishesha, differenza

– vaisheshika: i sutra di kanada (più antico??) vg 163

– 3 teorie sull’origine del vaisheshika vg 164

– commenti al nyaya-sutra: vatsyayana (quinto secolo)

– commenti al nyaya-sutra: vatsyayana (quinto secolo) p73 – dignaga (il buddhista) confutò la sua opera vg 168

– vriksha: albero

vinaa (senza)

visarga due punti ( : ) sta per una s o r finali
3. la formazione della base verbale in parte dipende dal rafforzamento della vocale radicale (la vocale della radice). Le vocali semplici sono soggette a un duplice rafforzamento: il primo grado è chiamato guna, il secondo vriddhi.

a aa i ii u uu ri rii lri
guna a e o ar al
vriddhi aa ai au aar aal

vana (foresta) – neutro
n vanam vane vanaani
a vanam vane vanaani
s vanena vanaabhyaam vanai:
d vanaaya vanaabhyaam vanebhya:
ab vanaat vanaabhyaam vanebhya:
g vanasya vanayo: vanaanaam
l vane vanayo: vaneshu
v vana vane vanaani

vinaa senza o fuori

vad, vadati parlare

vana sostantivo decl in a foresta
vana (foresta) – neutro
n vanam vane vanaani
a vanam vane vanaani
s vanena vanaabhyaam vanai:
d vanaaya vanaabhyaam vanebhya:
ab vanaat vanaabhyaam vanebhya:
g vanasya vanayo: vanaanaam
l vane vanayo: vaneshu
v vana vane vanaani

vap, vapati seminare

vas, vasati dimorare, vivere in un luogo

vah, vahati portare, scorrere

vid, vindati trovare 6 irreg

viira: eroe

vinaa senza o fuori

vish, vishyati 6 entrare

vraj, vrajati andare

vyadh, vidyati trafiggere 4 irreg

3) conoscenza inadeguata, in quanto fittizia (vikalpa)
libertà dalle passioni (vairagya)

– il termine vaisheshika deriva da “vishesha” (differenza); esso stabilisce le differenze specifiche fra tutti gli oggetti che ci viene da incontrare nel mondo esterno e in quello interno, cerca di raggiungere in tal modo una soluzione dei problemi metafisici

– i seguaci si chiamarono vaisheshika

– vaisheshika, filosofia della natura a base atomistica
(vaisheshika-sutra, kanada) p73

vriksha: albero

– commenti al nyaya-sutra: vatsyayana (pakshilasvamin) (quinto secolo) vg 168

– vyapti “abbracciamento” termine nyaya vedi vg 169

* vajrayana: vg64, 67, 242, 289

– testi nyaya-vaisheshika:
1. la Saptapadarthi di Shivaditya (XI secolo), il libro delle sette categorie (alle sei dell’antico vaisheshikha viene aggiunta come settima il non en essessessessessere),
2. i Tarkabhasha di Keshavamishra (XIII secolo);
3. il Tarkasangraha di Annambhatta, XvII secolo
4. la Tarkakaumudi di Laugakshi Bhaskara XvII secolo
5. e la Karikali (Bhashapariccheda) di vishvanatha, XvII secolo

5. particolarità (vishesha), vg 171
l’albero cade nel lago vrksho hrade patati

* vinaya: modestia

culto tantrico vamacar e adoravano le panch-makar (le cinque lettere o forme)

Il più Grande, vibhum: per tutte queste ragioni, egli è l’entità più grande che esista.

3. la formazione della base verbale in parte dipende dal rafforzamento della vocale radicale (la vocale della radice). Le vocali semplici sono soggette a un duplice rafforzamento: il primo grado è chiamato guna, il secondo vriddhi.

* vad, vadati: parlare 1 coniug

* vap, vapati: seminare, piantare 4 1 coniug

* vas, vasati: abitare 1 coniug

* vah, vahati: portare, fluire, scorrere 1 coniug

* vraj, vrajati: andare 4 1 coniug

– i sarvastivadin furono chiamati anche vaibhashika

* vaishnava: devoto di vishnu

– vishuddha-sattva (nitya-vibhuti) energia spirituale

d) vallabha (1479-1531)
– nato a benares da genitori telugu, trascorre la maggior parte della sua vita nei dintorni di mathura
– fondatore di un movimento di devoti di krishna
– scrisse commenti ai brahma-sutra e al bhagavata-purana; il tattvadipanibandha e molto altro
– la sua scuola lanciò una forte attività letteraria, tanto in sanskrito, in hindi e in gujarati
– secondo un’antica tradizione, quella di vallabha proviene da un maestro precedente, vishnusvami (13 sec ??); erano così simili che i due movimenti si fusero in uno p73 – il vedanta di vallabha si chiama shuddhadvaita-mata, puro monismo, perchè affermò che brahma non è mai toccato da maya
– anche secondo vallabha krishna è la suprema personalità di dio
– il mondo materiale è una trasformazione di dio
– dio si manifesta in tre forme: brahman, paramatma e bhagavan
– maryada: regole e precetti e pushti (grazia salvatrice)
– non è necessario rinunciare a tutto, bensì si deve mettere tutto al servizio di krishna
– la più alta beatitudine è la liberazione a goloka
– secondo un’antica tradizione, quella di vallabha proviene da un maestro precedente, vishnusvami (13 sec ??); erano così simili che i due movimenti si fusero in uno

secondo un’antica tradizione, quella di vallabha proviene da un maestro precedente, vishnusvami (13 sec ??); erano così simili che i due movimenti si fusero in uno

– il fondatore fu vasugupta (9 sec dc ?) al quale shiva avrebbe rivelato la conoscenza, la quale era antichissima ma che era caduta nell’oblio; shiva gli fece trovare una pietra sull’himalaya dove c’erano scritti gli shiva-sutra

* vijnanakala: anime liberate dagli organi attraverso la conoscenza

i vira-shaiva, adoratori di shiva indomiti, detti anche lingayat (coloro che recano il linga)

* vasava: vedi basava
– sostengono il monismo differenziato (visheshadvaita), nella quale shiva è l’ente supremo
– la dottrina relativa ai dharma fu scritta nell’abhidharma-kosha da vasubandhu

– pudgala, personalità, è una serie di elementi particolari separati e in cooperazione tra di loro, come un corteo di formiche

– la scuola vatsiputriya (o sammitiya) rifiuta la teoria del pudgala e dice che la spiegazione non è accettabile; ma un quid indefinibile

– tale teoria era giustificabile con l’intenzione di proporre dei buddha sovrannaturali che sopravvivessero anche dopo il nirvana

– i pudgala-vadin, dunque sostenevano che l’individualità, in qualche modo, esisteva e furono aspramente avversati ortodossi
vg 224

vipashyana (comprensione) buddh

* vaisampayana: discepolo di vyasa, narrò il Maha-bharata durante il sacrificio dei serpenti di Janamejaya

* vaishya: una delle quattro divisioni sociali quella dei commercianti e dei proprietari terrieri

* valala: il nome che Bhima assunse durante il periodo in incognito

* valmiki: il saggio che scrisse il Ramayana

* vana Parva: uno dei capitoli del Maha-bharata

* vanara: il popolo di scimmie che aiutò Rama a ritrovare Sita

* varanavata: la città dove i Pandava furono mandati per essere arsi vivi nella loro casa

* varuna: il deva dell’oceano p73 * varuna-astra: l’arma presieduta da varuna; come effetto sprigiona un’enorme quantità d’acqua

* vasishtha: un grande saggio

* vasu: otto importanti esseri celesti

* vasudeva: il padre di Krishna

* vasuki: il re dei naga

* vayu: il deva del vento

* veda: una vasta raccolta di libri compilati da vyasadeva; è la conoscenza più completa ed esatta che il genere umano abbia mai avuto

* vibhishana: l’anziano re di Lanka; era il fratello minore di Ravana e Kumbhakarna

* vicitravirya: il figlio di Shantanu e Satyavati

* vidura: una delle incarnazione di Dharma; nacque come fratello minore di Dritarashtra

* vijaya: uno dei due guardiani dei pianeti vaikuntha maledetti dai Kumara a nascere tre volte come demoni in questo mondo materiale

* vikarna: era uno dei pochi figli virtuosi di Dritarashtra

* vinata: una delle mogli di Kashyapa; da lei nacque Garuda e Aruna

* vinda: un principe che combattè dalla parte dei Kurava

* virata: il re di Matsya che combattè per i Pandava

* virata Parva: uno dei capitoli del Maha-bharata

* vishnu: uno delle espansioni di Krishna; significa “sostegno di tutto ciò che esiste”; attraverso di lui gli universi materiali sono manifestati

* vishoka: l’auriga di Bhima

* vishvakarma: l’architetto dei deva

* vishvamitra: uno dei saggi più grandi; fu protagonista di imprese sovrumane

* vishvarupa: divenuto il guru di Indra, fu poi ucciso dal suo stesso discepolo

* vivashvan: il nome proprio del deva del sole

* vivimsati: uno dei figli di Dritarashtra

* vraja: vedi vrindavana

* vrika: combattè dalla parte dei Pandava

* vrikodara: uno dei nomi di Bhima

* vrindavana: villaggio dell’India dove, circa 5.000 anni fa, Krishna rivelò i suoi divertimenti trascendentali in compagnia dei puri devoti; non c’è differenza tra questo luogo terreno e Goloka vrindavana, ma tale visione è possibile solo per colui che è completamente purificato

* vrishaparva: antico re degli asura che poi si dedicò alla pratica dello yoga

* vrishasena: uno dei figli di Karna

* vrishni: la stirpe in cui Krishna apparve

* vritra: un grande asura ucciso da Indra

* vyasa: il saggiò che dette ordine e mise per iscritto i veda; fu il padre di Dritarashtra, Pandu e vidura; suoi altri nomi: vyasadeva, Krishna Dvaipayana, veda-vyasa

* vyuha: l’organizzazione strategica degli eserciti

p73 – i sarvastivadin furono chiamati anche vaibhashika proprio per quel grande commento scritto (jnana-prasthana)

La parola vaishvanara si può scomporre in questa maniera: nara significa “il capo” e vishva “di tutti”. Dunque uno dei significati possibili della parola vaishvanara è l’Essere Supremo.
vaishvanara è un termine abbastanza comune (sadharana) nella letteratura vedica e i significficati possono essere molti; ma il principale è sicuramente “colui dentro il quale tutti gli uomini sono contenuti”. O anche “colui che diventa il fuoco gastrico che permette la digestione a tutti gli esseri”.
E sicuramente indica vishnu.

* japa: la presentazione di una evidenza è chiamata japa
– il tentativo di sconfiggersi l’un l’altro è chiamato vitanda
– la conclusione finale è chiamata vada

* vairagya: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – ashram vidya

* vaisheshika: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – ashram vidya

* vaishvanara: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – ashram vidya

* vaishya: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – ashram vidya

* vanaprastha: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – ashram vidya

* varna: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – ashram vidya

* vasana: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – ashram vidya

* veda: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – ashram vidya

* vedanta: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – ashram vidya

* vedanta-sutra: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – ashram vidya

* vidya: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – ashram vidya

* vijnana: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – ashram vidya

* vijnanamaya-kosha: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – ashram vidya

* vikalpa: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – ashram vidya

* vikshepa-shakti: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – ashram vidya

* virat: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – ashram vidya

* vishesha: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – ashram vidya

* vishnu: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – ashram vidya

* vishva: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – ashram vidya

* viveka: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – ashram vidya

* viveka-cudamani: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – ashram vidya p73 * vritti: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – ashram vidya

* vyasa: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – ashram vidya

Vivasvan: suoi
da Samjna: Yama, Yami e Shraddhadeva
da Chaya: Shanaishcara, Savarni e Tapati (figlia)
da vadava: gli Ashvini-kumara

vacaspati Mishra: vissuto verso l’800, cercò di dimostrare come tutti le varie dottrine non sono affatto sistemi diversi, bensì parte di una medesima impalcatura

vadakalai: movimento Ramanuja che dava enfasi alla partecipazione attiva del discepolo al fine di ottenere la liberazione

vaidhi-bhakti: la devozione caratterizzata dallo spirito di sottomissione. Dà particolare importanza alle molte regole del vaishnavismo

vaikuntha: i pianeti spirituali

vaisheshika: sistema filosofico che ha lo scopo di stabilire le differenze specifiche che esistono fra tutti gli oggetti che ci capita di incontrare nella realtà, sia in quella esterna che in quella interna. Particolare attenzione viene data all’analisi delle particelle che compongono la natura materiale, e cioè all’atomo

vaisheshika-sutra: il testo di base del vaisheshika

vaishnava: il devoto di vishnu, o Krishna

vaishnavismo: la dottrina che riconosce vishnu o Krishna come l’Essere Supremo

vaishya: classe sociale degli agricoltori e dei commercianti; provvedono alle necessità vitali della società e proteggono gli animali, in particolare la mucca

vallabha: grande erudito e devoto di Krishna. Fonda un movimento vaishnava ancora attivo

vanaprastha: terza tappa della vita spirituale. Periodo di pellegrinaggi nei vari luoghi santi per distaccarsi dalla vita familiare e sociale e prepararsi al sannyasa

varanasi: antico nome dell’attuale Benares

vardhamana: vedi Mahavira

varna: le quattro divisioni della società secondo le funzioni naturali che vi svolgono i suoi membri. Sono i brahmana, gli kshatriya, i vaishya e i shudra

vasubandhu: filosofo buddhista. Scrisse l’Abhidharma-kosha, il fondamento teorico del buddhismo hinayana. Poi, grazie all’opera di convincimento del fratello Asanga, passò al mahayana

vasudeva: lo stato della pura virtù, della totale purificazione

vasugupta: maestro shivaita che fondò la cosiddetta “Dottrina del Riconoscimento in Shiva”. vedi trika

veda: una vasta raccolta di libri compilati da vyasadeva. E’ la conoscenza più completa ed esatta che il genere umano abbia mai avuto

vedanta: commento filosofico dei veda. E’ uno dei sei darshana p73

vedanta-sutra: importante testo filosofico. E’ la conclusione dei principi vedici

vibhuti: i poteri che si sviluppano grazie alla pratica dello yoga

videha: regione dell’India

vidhi: le prescrizioni, le regole del ciò che deve essere fatto

vijnanabhikshu: maestro che dimostrò l’unità di intenti dei sei sistemi classici

vijnana-vada: dottrina buddhista, che propone l’esistenza della sola coscienza

vijnana-citta: la coscienza

vikramashila: città dell’India

vira-shaiva: movimento di devoti di Shiva

vishaya: l’oggetto di una affermazione, momento nel quale viene definito ciò di cui si sta trattando

vishesha: qualità

vishnu: uno dei nomi di Krishna, che significa “il sostegno di tutto ciò che esiste”

vishnu-bhakti: la dottrina della devozione a vishnu

vishnu Purana: una delle 18 Purana

vishnusvami: puro devoto vaishnava. Era un discendente spirituale della Rudra-sampradaya e scrisse un famoso commento al vedanta- sutra chiamato Sarvajna-bhashya

vivarta: teoria per cui la molteplicità è vista come un “vivarta”, ovverosia una manifestazione apparente di un essere perennemente immutabile.

vivarta-vada: la dottrina che sostiene l’immutabilità dell’Essere Supremo

vivashvan: il deva del sole

vivekananda: un discepolo di Ramakrishna

vrindavana: il villaggio dell’india dove, circa 5.000 anni fa, Krishna rivelò i suoi divertimenti trascendentali

vyasadeva: il saggio protagonista di molti dei più importanti momenti della sua epoca. Mise per iscritto tutti i veda

* vaikuntha: i pianeti spirituali

* vaikuntha-dhama: vedi vaikuntha

* vaikuntha-loka: vedi vaikuntha

* vaisampayana: uno dei discepoli di vyasa. Narrò il Maha-bharata in occasione del sacrificio dei serpenti di Janamejaya

* vaishnava: devoto di vishnu o Krishna

* vallabha: importante vaishnava del sedicesimo secolo

* vamadeva: personaggio della letteratura vedica. E’ menzionato nel vedanta-sutra

* vamana: detto anche vamanadeva, è un’importante incarnazione di vishnu che discese sulla Terra sotto forma di un nano. Possiede un pianeta nell’universo spirituale

* varaha: incarnazione divina che apparve come un cinghiale

* varna: ognuna delle quattro divisioni della società conformemente alle funzioni naturali svolte dai cittadini. Queste sono: brahmana, kshatriya, vaishya e shudra. L’equilibrio e l’armonia della società dipendono dal rispetto delle norme che governano i varna

* vasudeva: uno dei nomi di Krishna che significa “figlio di vasudeva”

* vasudeva: il padre di Krishna

* vasudeva: una delle espansioni di Krishna

* vatsalya: parentela

* vatsalya-rasa: relazione spirituale in cui il devoto considera il Signore come un membro della propria famiglia (vedi Nanda o Yashoda)

* veda: vasta raccolta di libri compilati da vyasa. E’ la conoscenza più completa ed esatta che il genere umano abbia mai avuto. I testi fondamentali sono quattro: lo Yajus, il Rig, il Sama e l’Atharva

* vedanta-sutra: importante testo filosofico vedico. E’ considerato il commento naturale ai veda

* vibhinnamsha: espansioni parziali della potenza di Dio: sono le jiva, le anime spirituali individuali

* vigraha: forma

* vikarma: azioni che non tengono conto dei consigli delle scritture e pertanto conducono alla degradazione e alla frustrazione

* virata-rupa: la forma universale del Signore, nella quale è possibile vedere contemporaneamente tutto ciò che esiste

* vishnu: uno dei nomi di Krishna, significa “sostegno di tutto ciò che esiste”. E’ anche la divinità che predomina il sattva-guna

* vishnu-avatara: manifestazioni divine, incarnazioni di Dio

* vishnusvami: maestro spirituale vaishnava

* vishnu-tattva: manifestazioni divine, incarnazioni di Dio

* vishvanatha Cakravarti Thakura: saggio e santo vaishnava

* vrindavana: villaggio dell’India (90 miglia a sud-est di Delhi, nel distretto di Mathura) dove, circa 5.000 anni fa, Krishna visse e attuò i Suoi divertimenti trascendentali in compagnia dei puri devoti.
vrindavana è anche nel cielo spirituale, e tra le due non vi è differenza. Tale visione è tuttavia possibile solo a colui che si è completamente purificato

* vrindavana das Thakur: l’autore del Caitanya-bhagavata

* vyasa: il saggiò che diede ordine e mise per iscritto i veda. Altri nomi: vyasadeva, Krishna Dvaipayana, veda vyasa, Badarayana

* vyenkata bhatta: importante devoto vissuto attorno al 1500. Era un importante discepolo di Caitanya

Varsabhanavi
Srimati Radharani

Vartmapradarsaka
il primo che mostra il sentiero spirituale

Vrisabhanunandini
Srimati Radharani

va.nda = Worship
va.nde = (Vr. Pr.I. P.Sing.AP)bow; salute
va.nsha = family
va.nshahiina = without family
vaH = your
vaktaaram.h = the man who speaks or utters
vaktuM = to say
vaktR^i = orator
vaktra = the mouth
vaktraM = face
vaktraaNi = the mouths
vakra = Retrograde
vakragati = not straight
vakratuNDaaya = to one who has crooked limb or part(the twised broken tusk)
vakraa = (adj) curved, crooked
vakraasana = the curved posture
vaN^ga = Bengal
vachaH = words
vachana = talk
vachanaM = word
vachane = (loc.sing) in words or speech
vachasaa = with words
vachmi = vachAmi or shall speak
vajra = one of the channels in the spine, a thunderbolt, diamond
vajra-maNii = diamond
vajraM = the thunderbolt
vajram.h = (n) diamond
vajraasana = the thunderbolt posture
vajrolii = the thunderbolt contraction
vaTavR^ikshaH = (m) a banyan tree
vatsya = reside
vad.h = to talk
vada = please tell
vada.nti = (Vr.Pr.IIIP.pl.PP) tell; speak
vadati = (1 pp) to speak
vadana = face
vadanam.h = (n) mouth
vadanaiH = by the mouths
vadanti = say
vadasi = You tell
vadishhyanti = will say
vadyapaksha = Dark half of the lunar month
vadhuu = (f) bride
vana = forest
vanaM = forest
vanachara = animal
vanaspatishaastram.h = botany
vantaH = subject to
vand.h = to bow down
vanda = Worship
vandate = (1 ap) to salute
vandita = praised, saluted
vande = worship
vanhiH = fire
vapati = (1 pp) to sow
vapuH = body
vamati = (1 pp) to vomit
vaya = age
vayaM = we
vayasi = of age
vayasigate = vayasi+gate, when age has advanced/gone
vara = Groom
varaM = better
varaH = better
varada = the one granting boons
varadaM = that which gives boons
varadamuurtaye = to the personified boongiver
varaan.h = (masc.Acc.Pl.) boons; bridegrooms
varaanane = Oh! lady having the best face!
varaaha = the boar
varaahaH = (m) pig, boar
varishhTham.h = the foremost
varuNaH = the demigod controlling the water
varga = Divisional or Harmonic Charts
vargamuula = square root
vargottama = Same sign in navaa.nsha as in Bhavi usually increasing power for good or bad
varjayet.h = (verb III P.sing.PP) should be avoided ; given up
varjitaaH = are devoid of
varNa = color
varNaM = colors
varNayaaM = do we describe
varNasaN^kara = of unwanted children
varNasaN^karaH = unwanted progeny
varNaadii.n = the letter groups or caste groups
vartate = (1 ap) to exist, to be
vartana = Behavior
vartante = are being engaged
vartamaana = Present
vartamaanaH = being situated
vartamaanaani = present
vartaya = to operate (causal from vart.h)
vartin.h = one who lives / behaves
varte = I am engaged
varteta = remains
varteyaM = thus engage
vartma = path
vartmani = on the path
vardhate = (1 ap) to grow, to increase
vardhana = Who prospers
vardhamaanakaH = (m) special containers used to store pickles
varsha = Year
varshaphala = Annual results. Method of Progression using Solar Returns
varshh.h = to pour
varshha = year
varshhaM = rain
varshhatu = (Vr.Imp.IIIP S)let it rain
varshhaa = monsoon
valakhilya = a class of tiny entities, about the size of a thumb
valaya = circle
valayam.h = (n) bangle
valli = (fem) creeper
vasha = Agree
vashaM = control
vashaaH = (Nom.Pl.) (are under) control or influence
vashaat.h = under obligation
vashii = one who is controlled
vashii+kR^i = to conquer, overcome
vashe = in full subjugation
vashya = under control
vas.h = to live
vasat.h = one who lives
vasati = (1 pp) to stay, dwell
vasana = dwelling
vasanta = the deity of Spring, also Spring itself
vasantau = (and) Spring season
vasavaH = the Vasus
vasaanaM = having worn
vasudhaa = earth
vasudhaiva = vasudhA(fem.nom.sing.)earth;world + eva:alone;itself
vasun.h = the eight Vasus
vasundharaa = (f) earth
vasaunaaM = of the Vasus
vasti = internal cleansing
vastu = Article
vastuuni = objects
vastra = Garment
vahati = (1 pp) to carry
vahamyahaM = vahAmi + ahaM:bear or carry + I
vahaa = Porter
vahaami = carry
vahni = fire
vahniH = fire ( for worship)
vahnikaNa = spark
vaksha = chest
vakshaHsthalam.h = (n) breasts, chest
vakshoja = breasts
vakshyaami = shall explain
vaa = or
vaa.ngmaya = full of speech
vaa.nchh.h = to want
vaa.nchhaa = (fem) desire
vaak.h = language/speech
vaakya = sentence
vaakyaM = words
vaakyaani = sentences
vaakyena = words
vaagmii = master of speech
vaaN^mayaM = of the voice
vaaN^mayaH = full of the `word’ i.e. master of the word \ language
vaachaM = words
vaachaH = the Vedas
vaachaa = speech
vaachaala = capable of talking
vaachyaM = to be spoken
vaaJNchhasi = you desire
vaaJNchhita = desired
vaaNijyaM = trade
vaaNii = language
vaaNiiM = speech
vaata = (masc) wind
vaataya = blow (like a wind?)
vaataaTaH = (m) kite
vaataatmajaM = the son of the wind-god (`vAta’ or `vAyu)
vaataayana = a horse
vaataayanaM = window
vaataayanaasana = the horseface posture
vaataavaraNam.h = (n) environment, also used to mean weather
vaada = argument
vaadaH = the natural conclusion
vaadayati = to play (a musical instrument)
vaadaan.h = fabricated words
vaadinaH = the advocates
vaadinii = she who speaks
vaanara = monkey
vaanarayuuthamukhyam.h = the chieftain of the monkey brigade
vaapi = at all
vaama = left side
vaamadevaasana = Vamadeva’s posture
vaamana = Vishnu’s fifth incarnation also known as trivikrama
vaamaprakaasha = lovely shiningness
vaamaa.nkaaruuDha = having the left side of the body climbed, occupied by
vaame = left side
vaayu = wind
vaayuH = the vital airs
vaayoH = of the wind
vaayau = air(life-breath)
vaara = Day
vaaraM = and again
vaaradhipati = Ruler of the Day
vaari = water
vaari-dhara = water-carrier(cloud )
vaariNi = the one who prevents
vaarida = cloud (one who gives water)
vaarivaaha = (m) cloud
vaartaa = news
vaartaaM = word (here enquiry/inquiry)
vaarshhNeya = O descendant of VRishhNi
vaalmiikikokilam.h = the vAlmIki-cuckoo
vaasaH = living
vaasanaa = longings, craving
vaasara = Day
vaasava = indra
vaasavaH = the heavenly king
vaasas.h = apparel / clothes
vaasaa.nsi = garments
vaasita = made fragrant
vaasukiH = Vasuki
vaasukii = a name of Shesha
vaasudevaH = the Personality of Godhead, KRishhNa
vaasudevasya = of KRishhNa
vaasudevaaH = KRishhNa
vaaso = cloth, dress
vaastushaastra = study of architecture
vaahana = vehicle
vaahanakaaraka = Significator of vehicles which is Venus
vi+apa+gam.h = to go away
vi+chint.h = think
vi+bhaa = to adorn
vi+smR^i = to forget
vi+GYaa = to know
vi.ndati = enjoys
vi.nsha.nsha = A Varga. The harmonic twentieth division. Used for delineating Religious fervour and accrued spiritual merit
vi.nshottari = The most popular Dasha method in use today
vi.nshopaka = A method of calculating planetary strength using the Vargas
vikampituM = to hesitate
vikarNaH = Vikarna
vikarmaNaH = of forbidden work
vikala = disabled
vikalaM = not related or joined
vikalpa = imagination, fancy
vikaaraM = appearance (generally, grotesque/ugly)
vikaaraan.h = transformations
vikaari = changes
vikirati = to cast a net
vikiirNa = scattered
vikR^i = modify, alter
vikR^ita = Ugly
vikR^itavahaa = Ugly porter
vikraantaH = mighty
vikriiNiite = to sell
vikrtaacharaNii = adj. mentally disturbed behaviour
vikhyaata = famous
vigata = having discarded
vigataH = is removed
vigatajvaraH = without being lethargic
vigatabhiiH = devoid of fear
vigataspR^ihaH = without being interested
viguNaH = even faulty
vigraha = attack
vigrahasandhau = for war(dissension) or peace-making
vighati = Equivalent to 24 seconds of clock time
vighna = calamity
vighnanaashine = to the destroyer of all obstacles
vighnaiH = difficulties, obstacles
vichar.h = to think
vichakshaNa = clever, wise
vichakshaNaH = the experienced
vichaara = thought
vichaaraM = thought
vichaalayet.h = should try to agitate
vichaalyate = becomes shaken
vichitra = foolish, extraordinary, strange
vichitraH = wonderful/mysterious
vichintaya = think well
vichintya = having thought
vichetasaH = bewildered
vijayaM = victory
vijayaH = victory
vijayate = is victorious
vijayii = victorious man
vijaanataH = who is in complete knowledge
vijaaniitaaH = are in knowledge
vijaaniiyaM = shall I understand
vijitaatmaa = self-controlled
vijitendriyaH = sensually controlled
vitataH = are spread
vitarati = to distribute
vitarka = discernment
vitR^i = to distribute
vitR^ishhNaaM = desirelessness
vitta = money
vittaM = wealth
vittakoshhaH = (m) bank
vitte = wealth
vitteshaH = the lord of the treasury of the demigods
vid.h = to obtain
vidaH = who understand
vidadhaami = give
vidaarayati = to split apart
vidaahinaH = burning
viditam.h = known
viditaatmanaaM = of those who are self-realized
viditvaa = having known/realised
vidishaaM = non-direction
viduH = understood
viduushhakaH = (m) clown, joker
videsha = foreign land
viddhi = know for sure
vidmaH = do we know
vidmahe = ?
vidyate = there is
vidyanipuNai = by the ace scholar Shankara (Plural is used for reverance)
vidyayaa = (fem.instr.sing.) by knowledge
vidyaa = knowledge
vidyaat.h = you must know
vidyaaturaanaaM = (poss.pl.) of people who are indulging in knowledge
vidyaanaaM = of all education
vidyaanidhiH = the stock-pile of knowledge (here rAma)
vidyaamahaM = shall I know
vidyaarthinii = (f) student
vidyaarthii = (m) student
vidyaalayaH = (m) school
vidyaavaan.h = a knowledgeable manor scholar
vidyut.hkandaH = (m) incandescent bulb
vidvat.h = scholar
vidvattva = scholarliness
vidvaan.h = learned
vidvishhaavahai = may us not quarrel or hate
vidhaatR^i = the creator
vidhaana = placing
vidhaanoktaH = according to scriptural regulation
vidhi = ritual
vidhidishhTaH = according to the direction of scripture
vidhihiinaM = without scriptural direction
vidhiiyate = does take place
vidhuuta = moving
vidhema = make
vidheyaatmaa = one who follows regulated freedom
vina = without
vinaN^kshyasi = you will be lost
vinadya = vibrating
vinaya = humility
vinayii = man with humility
vinashayasi = you destroy
vinashyati = falls back
vinashyatsu = in the destructible
vinaa = without
vinaasha = total destruction
vinaashaM = destruction
vinaashaH = destruction
vinaashaaya = for the annihilation
vinigrahaH = control
viniyataM = particularly disciplined
viniyamya = regulating
viniyogaH = distribution (of various limbs, postures)
vinirmuktaaH = liberated
vinivartante = are practiced to be refrained from
vinivR^itta = disassociated
vinishchitaiH = certain
viniha.nsi = you kill
vinoda = humor
vinodaya = divert/recreate(be happy)
vindati = (6 pp) to find
vindate = enjoys
vindaami = I have
vipatti = calamity
viparivartate = is working
vipariita = inverted, contrary to rule, wrong
vipariitaM = the opposite
vipariitakaraNii = the upside-down posture
vipariitaan.h = in the wrong direction
vipariitaani = just the opposite
viparyaya = inversion
viparyayeNaa.api = by changing also
viparyaaya = a mistaken view
vipashchit.h = (m) a learned man, scholar
vipashchitaH = full of discriminating knowledge
vipaksha = of the opposite side
vipaaka = the distressing results of karmas
vipula = ample
vipulaM = more than enough, plenty
vipratipanna = adj. perplexed
vipratipannaa = without being influenced by the fruitive results
viprapriyaM = the loved of the Brahmins
vipraaH = (masc.nom.Pl.)Brahmins
viphalaH = not good fruitless
vibhaktaM = divided
vibhakteshhu = in the numberless divided
vibhaagayoH = differences
vibhaagashaH = in terms of division
vibhaavasau = in the fire
vibhuM = greatest
vibhuH = the Supreme Lord
vibhum.h = the Lord who shines
vibhuutayaH = opulences
vibhuuti = divine power
vibhuutiM = opulence
vibhuutinaaM = opulences
vibhuutibhiH = opulences
vibhuuteH = of opulences
vibhuush.h = to decorate
vibhuushhaNa = ornament, asset
vibhramaH = bewilderment
vibhrashhTaH = deviated from
vibhraantaaH = perplexed
vimatsaraH = free from envy
vimaanam.h = (n) an aircraft, plane
vimuktaH = liberated
vimuktaanaaM = of those who are liberated
vimuktaiH = by one who has become free from
vimuchya = being delivered from
vimuJNchati = one gives up
vimuhyati = one is bewildered
vimuuDha = foolish
vimuuDhaH = bewildered
vimuuDhabhaavaH = bewilderment
vimuuDhaaH = foolish persons
vimuuDhaan.h = perfectly befooled
vimR^ishya = deliberating
vimochana = freedom
vimohayati = bewilders
vimohitaaH = deluded
vimokshaNaat.h = giving up
vimokshaaya = meant for liberation
vimokshyase = you will be liberated
viyogaM = extermination
virakta = uninerested
virachita = created
virachitaM = created, composed
virala = rare
viraha = separation
virahitaM = without
viraagaH = Non-attachment/desirelessness
viraaTaH = Virata
viraam.h = to stop
viraama = stop
viraamaH = respite, full stop
virochana = a demon prince
virodha = opposition
vilagnaaH = becoming attached
vilayamaM = extinct
vilepana = smearing
vilokayataaM = of those who are seeing
vilokya = on seeing
viloma = against the natural order of things
vivarjita = without/ having abandoned
vivarjitaM = devoid of
vivardhanaaH = increasing
vivasvataH = of the sun-god
vivasvate = unto the sun-god
vivasvaan.h = Vivasvan (the sun-god’s name)
vivakshaa = choice
vivaaha = Wedding
vivaahaM = marriage
vivikta = to solitary
viviktasevii = living in a secluded place
vividha = varied
vividhaH = various
vividhaaH = various
vividhaiH = various
vivR^iNute = (Vr. Pr.III Per.S.AP)chooses
vivR^iddhaM = increased
vivR^iddhe = when developed
viveka = discrimination
vivekin.h = one who is thoughtful and just
vishate = he enters
vishanti = enter
vishama\-vR^ittii = uneven or strained movement whilst breathing
vishaaM = and the vaisyas
vishaakhaa = Sixteenth nakshatra
vishaala = very great
vishaalaM = vast
vishaalaakshau = (two)persons with (lotus-like)large eyes
vishishhTaaH = especially powerful
vishishhyate = is by far the better
vishuddha = pure
vishuddhayaa = fully purified
vishuddhaye = for clarifying
vishuddhaatmaa = a purified soul
visheshha = particular
visheshhataH = especiaaly
visheshhasaN^ghaan.h = specifically assembled
visheshhaGYa = the knowledgeable or wise person
vishyati = (4 pp) to pierce
vishleshha = lonely (antonym of aashleshha which is embrace)
vishvaM = the universe
vishvataaH = from all around the world
vishvatomukhaM = and in the universal form
vishvatomukhaH = Brahma
vishvamaaryaM = vishvaM:Universe and AryaM: (acc.sing.):noble person
vishvamuurte = O universal form
vishvaruupa = in the form of the universe
vishvavedaaH = one who has understood the world(vishva)
vishvasya = universe
vishvaamitra = vishvAmitra’s
vishvaasa = faith
vishvaasabhuumi = trustworthy
vishve = the Visvedevas
vishveshvara = O Lord of the universe
vishha = poison
vishhama = odd (as in odd or even)
vishhamiva = like poison
vishhame = in this hour of crisis
vishhaya = kingdom (here)
vishhayaaH = on the subject matter
vishhayaan.h = sense objects
vishhaye = in topics, in subjects
vishhaaNa = horns
vishhaadaM = moroseness
vishhaadi = morose
vishhiidan.h = while lamenting
vishhiidantaM = lamenting
vishhuspR^isha = touched, tinged with poison (poison-tipped arrow?)
vishheshhataa = difference
vishhopameyaM = poison-like
vishhTabhya = pervading
vishhThitaM = situated
vishhNu = the preserver of life
vishhNuH = the Lord MahaavishhNu
vishhNutvaM = the quality/state of Brahman/god-realisation
vishhNo = O Lord Visnu
visargaH = creation
visR^ijan.h = giving up
visR^ijaami = I create
visR^ijya = putting aside
vistaraH = the expanse
vistarashaH = in detail
vistarasya = to the extent
vistareNa = in detail
vistaaraM = the expansion
vistaarita = expanded
visphuraNai = by emanation
vismayaH = wonder
vismayapadaM = object of wonder
vismayaavishhTaH = being overwhelmed with wonder
vismitaaH = in wonder
vihaga = bird
vihaaya = giving up
vihaara = in relaxation
vihaarasya = recreation
vihaariNi = one who strolls
vihiaa = vihitA?, understood
vihita = prescribed
vihitaM = directed
vihitaaH = used
vihitaan.h = arranged
vihiina = without
vihiinaa = bereft
vihR^i = to roam
vikshipta = mental aggitation
vikshepa = confusion
viGYaataM = has been known
viGYaatuM = to know
viGYaana = comprehension, Science
viGYaanaM = numinous knowledge
viGYaanamaya = full of greater(scientific in a way) knowledge
viGYaanii = scientist
viGYaaya = after understanding
viijati = to fan
viita = free from
viitaraagaaH = in the renounced order of life
viithi = (f) road, way
viira = the sentiment of valor
viiraJNcha = name of Brahma
viirabhadraasana = the arrow posture
viiraasana = the hero posture
viirya = vitality, enthusiasm, semen
viiryaM = valour
viiryavaan.h = very powerful
viiryaaM = glories
viiksh.h = to see
viikshante = are beholding
viikshya = having seen
vR^ika = wolf
vR^ikodaraH = the voracious eater (Bhima)
vR^ijanaM = the ocean of miseries
vR^iNute = chooses
vR^it.h = to exist
vR^itta = desire
vR^ittapatrikaa = (f) newspaper
vR^ittisthaaH = whose occupation
vR^ittii = tendancy
vR^ithaa = (indecl) wanton, uselessly, idly
vR^iddha = aged
vR^iddhaH = old man
vR^iddhashravaaH = having become old with years of hearing knowledge
vR^intam.h = (n) the stem of a flower
vR^intaakam.h = (n) brinjal
vR^inda = (n) group
vR^ishashaila = vRishaa hill
vR^ishchika = The Zodiacal Sign of Scorpio
vR^ishchikaasana = the scorpion posture
vR^ishhabha = The Zodiacal Sign of Taurus
vR^ishhabhaH = (m) bull, the Zodiacal Sign of Taurus
vR^ishhTi = rain
vR^ishhTiH = (m) rain, showers
vR^ishhNiinaaM = of the descendants of VRishhNi
vR^iksha = tree
vR^ikshaasana = the tree posture
vR^ikshi = I sing. aatmane. `injunctive’ of vRij, `to avoid
vegaM = urges
vegaaH = speed
veNii = (f) pigtail, ponytail
veNuH = flute
vetanam.h = (n) salary
vetta = the knower
vetti = knows
vettha = know
veda = Ancient Indian Religious Texts
vedaH = (masc.nom.sing.)the Veda
vedakrama = vedaas
vedanaa = feelings of pain
vedayaGYa = by sacrifice
vedavaadarataaH = supposed followers of the Vedas
vedavit.h = the knower of the Vedas
vedavidaH = persons conversant with the Vedas
vedaaH = Vedic literatures
vedaanaaM = of all the Vedas
vedaanta = Vedic method of Self-Realization
vedaantakR^it.h = the compiler of the Vedanta
vedaantavedyo = one knowable thro’ `upanishat.h’
veditavyaM = to be understood
vedituM = to understand
vede = in the Vedic literature
vedeshhu = Vedic literatures
vedaiH = by study of the Vedas
vedyaM = what is to be known
vedyaH = knowable
vedhas.h = brahmaa
vedhase = to the Brahman (like rAma)
vepathuH = trembling of the body
vepathumathii = she who is sweating
vepamaanaH = trembling
velaa = (fem) time
vesha = dress
veshhaH = make-ups/garbs/roles
veshhTiH = (m) dhoti
vai = emphasis
vaikuNTha = the abode of Vishnu
vaikuNThaadhipatii = ruler of vaikuNTha which is Vishnu
vaidyaH = doctor
vainateyaH = Garuda
vaimaanikaH = (m) pilot
vaiyaakaraNa = Grammar
vaiyaakaraNasyaishhaH = to the grammarian+this
vaira = enmity
vairaagya = uncolouredness, not desiring physical objects
vairaagyaM = renunciation
vairaagyeNa = by detachment
vairaajya = excelent rulership
vairiNaM = greatest enemy
vairishhu = on enemies
vaisheshikaa = one of the schools (systems) of Indian philosophy
vaishya = the caste of merchants and professionals
vaishyaH = mercantile people
vaishravaNa = son of Vishravas (typically applied only to Kubera)
vaishvaanaraH = My plenary portion as the digesting fire
vaishhNava = a large sect of the followers of Sri Vishnu
vaiGYaanikaH = (m) scientist
vyakta = made known
vyaktayaH = living entities
vyaktiM = personality
vyajanam.h = (n) fan
vyatitarishhyati = surpasses
vyatiitaani = have passed
vyatta = open
vyathanti = are disturbed
vyathayanti = are distressing
vyathaa = trouble
vyathishhThaaH = be disturbed
vyadaarayat.h = shattered
vyapadesha = (m) mention, name
vyapaashrayaH = taking shelter of
vyapaashritya = particularly taking shelter
vyapetabhiiH = free from all fear
vyabhichaarin.h = adj. deviate
vyaya-bhaava = House of Expenditure/Loss or 12th
vyara.nsiit.h = passed, elapsed
vyartha = u(adj)seless, purposelss
vyavakalanam.h = (n) subtraction
vyavachchhetsiiH = cut or dissect
vyavasaayaH = enterprise or adventure
vyavasaayaatmikaa = resolute in KRishhNa consciousness
vyavasitaH = situated in determination
vyavasitaa = engaged
vyavasthitaan.h = situated
vyavasthitiH = the situation
vyavasthitau = put under regulations
vyavaasitaaH = have decided
vyashema = ?
vyasana = addiction
vyaakula = alarmed (adj)
vyaakulatva = (neut) sorrow, concern
vyaakulitaa = she who has been afflicted/affected
vyaaghraH = (m) tiger
vyaadhaH = (m) hunter
vyaadhi = disease
vyaadhii = illness
vyaana = one of the vital airs, circulates energy all over the body
vyaapaara = affair (masc)
vyaaptaM = pervaded
vyaapya = pervading
vyaamishreNa = by equivocal
vyaala = elephant
vyaasaH = Vyasa
vyaasaN^ga = varied interests, (involvement in) many hobbies
vyaasaprasaadaat.h = by the mercy of Vyasadeva
vyaasochchhishhThaM = vyAsa + uchchhishhThaM:by VyAsa + mouth-dropped
vyaaharan.h = vibrating
vyudasya = laying aside
vyuuDhaM = arranged in a military phalanx
vyuuDhaaM = arranged
vyomachaariNaH = the people who wander over the sky (and `pAtAla’\bhUtala’)
vyoman.h = (n) the sky
vraja = go
vrajeta = walks
vraNa = injury, wound (masc, neut)
vrata = austerities
vrataaH = avowed
vraata = disciplined course
vriddha = old, aged

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

” Vaideha: altro nome per Janaka. “Il Ramayana” di Manonath dasa
” Vaishravana: figlio di Vishrava, altro nome di Kuvera. “Il Ramayana” di Manonath dasa
” vaishya: classe sociale di commercianti e coltivatori. “Il Ramayana” di Manonath dasa
” Vali: re dei Vanara, fratello di Sugriva. “Il Ramayana” di Manonath dasa
” Valmiki: il saggio che scrisse il Ramayana. “Il Ramayana” di Manonath dasa
” Vanara: una razza di uomini-scimmie. “Il Ramayana” di Manonath dasa
” Vasishtha: saggio famoso e rispettato, citato spesso nella letteratura vedica. “Il Ramayana” di Manonath dasa
” Varuna: il deva delle acque. “Il Ramayana” di Manonath dasa
” Vayavya: un’arma che provoca un’enorme spostamento d’aria. “Il Ramayana” di Manonath dasa
” Vayu: il deva del vento. “Il Ramayana” di Manonath dasa
” Vedavati: donna asceta oltraggiata da Ravana. Rinasce come Sita. “Il Ramayana” di Manonath dasa
” Veda: significa letteralmente “conoscenza”. Tutta quella letteratura che tratta della conoscenza esposta dagli antichi saggi india. “Il Ramayana” di Manonath dasa
” Vedanta: commento filosofico dei Veda. “Il Ramayana” di Manonath dasa
” Vibhishana: il virtuoso fratello minore di Ravana. “Il Ramayana” di Manonath dasa
” Vidyujjihva: il marito di Shurpanakha. E’ anche il nome di un mago che viveva a Lanka. “Il Ramayana” di Manonath dasa
” Viradha: rakshasa ucciso da Rama . “Il Ramayana” di Manonath dasa
” Vishnu: espansione eterna di Krishna, la Persona Suprema. “Il Ramayana” di Manonath dasa
” Vishrava: il padre di Kuvera e di Ravana. “Il Ramayana” di Manonath dasa
” Visvakarma: l’architetto celeste. “Il Ramayana” di Manonath dasa
” Visvamitra: un famoso saggio dei tempi vedici. “Il Ramayana” di Manonath dasa
” Vivasvan: il deva del sole. “Il Ramayana” di Manonath dasa

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

* Vaisampayana: discepolo di Vyasa, narrò il Maha-bharata durante il sacrificio dei serpenti di Janamejaya. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa
* vaishya: una delle quattro divisioni sociali quella dei commercianti e dei proprietari terrieri. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa
* Valala: il nome che Bhima assunse durante il periodo in incognito. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa
* Valmiki: il saggio che scrisse il Ramayana. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa
* Vana Parva: uno dei capitoli del Maha-bharata. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa
* Vanara: il popolo di scimmie che aiutò Rama a ritrovare Sita. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa
* Varanavata: la città dove i Pandava furono mandati per essere arsi vivi nella loro casa. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa
* Varuna: il deva dell’oceano. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa
* varuna-astra: l’arma presieduta da Varuna; come effetto sprigiona un’enorme quantità d’acqua. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa
* Vasishtha: un grande saggio. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa
* Vasu: otto importanti esseri celesti. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa
* Vasudeva: il padre di Krishna. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa
* Vasuki: il re dei naga. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa
* Vayu: il deva del vento. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa
* Veda: una vasta raccolta di libri compilati da Vyasadeva; è la conoscenza più completa ed esatta che il genere umano abbia mai avuto. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa
* Vibhishana: l’anziano re di Lanka; era il fratello minore di Ravana e Kumbhakarna. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa
* Vicitravirya: il figlio di Shantanu e Satyavati. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa
* Vidura: una delle incarnazione di Dharma; nacque come fratello minore di Dritarashtra. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa
* Vijaya: uno dei due guardiani dei pianeti Vaikuntha maledetti dai Kumara a nascere tre volte come demoni in questo mondo materiale. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa
* Vikarna: era uno dei pochi figli virtuosi di Dritarashtra. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa
* Vinata: una delle mogli di Kashyapa; da lei nacque Garuda e Aruna. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa
* Vinda: un principe che combattè dalla parte dei Kurava. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa
* Virata: il re di Matsya che combattè per i Pandava. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa
* Virata Parva: uno dei capitoli del Maha-bharata. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa
* Vishnu: uno delle espansioni di Krishna; significa “sostegno di tutto ciò che esiste”; attraverso di lui gli universi materiali sono manifestati. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa
* Vishoka: l’auriga di Bhima. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa
* Vishvakarma: l’architetto dei deva. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa
* Vishvamitra: uno dei saggi più grandi; fu protagonista di imprese sovrumane. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa
* Vishvarupa: divenuto il guru di Indra, fu poi ucciso dal suo stesso discepolo. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa
* Vivashvan: il nome proprio del deva del sole. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa
* Vivimsati: uno dei figli di Dritarashtra. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa
* Vraja: vedi Vrindavana. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa
* Vrika: combattè dalla parte dei Pandava. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa
* Vrikodara: uno dei nomi di Bhima. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa
* Vrindavana: villaggio dell’India dove, circa 5.000 anni fa, Krishna rivelò i suoi divertimenti trascendentali in compagnia dei puri devoti; non c’è differenza tra questo luogo terreno e Goloka Vrindavana, ma tale visione è possibile solo per colui che è completamente purificato. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa
* Vrishaparva: antico re degli asura che poi si dedicò alla pratica dello yoga. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa
* Vrishasena: uno dei figli di Karna. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa
* Vrishni: la stirpe in cui Krishna apparve. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa
* Vritra: un grande asura ucciso da Indra. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa
* Vyasa: il saggiò che dette ordine e mise per iscritto i Veda; fu il padre di Dritarashtra, Pandu e Vidura; suoi altri nomi: Vyasadeva, Krishna Dvaipayana, Veda-vyasa. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa
* vyuha: l’organizzazione strategica degli eserciti. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa

Vaidhi-bhakti – devotion prompted by the regulations of the scriptures. When sadhana-bhakti is not inspired by intense longing, but is instigated instead by the discipline of the scriptures, it is called vaidhi-bhakti.
Vaijayanti-mala – a garland made of five varieties of flowers and which reaches the knees.
Vairagya – detachment or indifference to this world; a spiritual discipline involving the acceptance of voluntary austerities to achieve detachment from the sense objects.
Vaishnava – literally means one whose nature is “of Vishnu”, in other words, one in whose heart and mind only Vishnu or Krishna resides. A devotee of Sri Krishna or Vishnu.
Vaisya – the third of the four varnas (castes) in the varnasrama system; agriculturalists or businessmen.
Vamsi – one of Sri Krishna’s flutes that is about thirteen inches long and has nine holes on its body. Krishna also has a number of other, longer vamsis: the mahananda, or sammohini, made of jewels; the akarshini made of gold; and the anandini, technically named the vamsuli, made of bamboo.
Vanaprastha – a member of the third asrama (stage of life) in the varnasrama system; retired life which entails freedom from family responsibilities and the acceptance of spiritual vows.
Varna – class, occupational division, caste; the four varnas are: brahmana, kshatriya, vaisya and sudra.
Varnasrama-dharma – the Vedic social system, which organises society into four occupational divisions and four stages of life (varnas and asramas).
Vastu-siddhi – the stage in which the vastu, or substantive entity known as the jiva, is fully liberated from matter. After giving up the material body, the living entity who has already attained svarupasiddhi enters into Sri Krishna’s manifest pastimes, where he or she receives the association of Krishna and His eternal associates for the first time. There one receives further training from His eternal associates. When one becomes established in the mood of their prema and one’s eternal service to Krishna, one gives up all connection with this world and enters His spiritual abode. At this point the jiva becomes situated in his pure identity as a vastu, and this is known as vastu-siddhi.
Vatsalya-bhava – one of the five primary relationships with Sri Krishna, namely, love or attachment for Krishna expressed in the mood of a parent.
Veda – the four primary books of knowledge compiled by Srila Vyasadeva, namely, the Rig Veda, Sama Veda, Atharva Veda and Yajur Veda.
Vedanta – “the conclusion of Vedic knowledge”. The Upanishads are the latter portion of the Vedas and the Vedanta-sutra summarises the philosophy of the Upanishads in concise statements. Therefore the word “Vedanta” especially refers to the Vedanta-sutra.
Venu – (also called pavika) one of Krishna’s flutes that is very small, not more than nine inches long, with six holes on its body.
Venu-madhurya – see Madhurya.
Vibhava – is defined in Bhakti-rasamrita-sindhu (2.1.15) as follows: “That in which rati is tasted (alambana) and that cause by which rati is tasted (uddipana) is called vibhava.”
Vidhi-marga – the path of bhakti which follows rules and regulations.
Vikshepatmika – one of the illusory energy’s functions – the power to throw the living entity into the ocean of material existence; the spell of diversion that impels one to remain in conditioned life, fully satisfied by sense gratification.
Vilasa – pastimes, especially the playful amorous pastimes of Sri Radha-Krishna.
Vina – a stringed musical instrument of melodious sound, the favourite instrument of Narada Muni and of various other celestial personalities.
Vipralambha-rasa – the mellow of separation.
Viraha – separation (same as vipralambha).
Visuddha-sattva – see Suddha-sattva.
Vraja-devis, vraja-ramanis, vraja-sundaris – the gopis of Vraja.
Vrajavasi – a resident of Vraja.
Vrata – a vow undertaken for self-purification and spiritual benefit.
Vyabhicari-bhavas – same as sancari-bhavas (see Sancaribhavas).

vedavidya (knowledge from the
vedas of ancient India)

Termini – V
V

Vacaspati (Vacaspati)

vedi chi Vacaspati!!!!

autore di Bhamati, un testo considerato mayavada

Bibliografia:

Advaita e Visistadvaita di Srinivasacari, pag.10

vada (vada)

• forma di discussione tesa a stabilire la propria dottrina in modo costruttivo.

Bibliografia:

“Advaita and Visistadvaita” di Srinivasacari (pag.4)

Sat-sanga n.a, art. di Manonath dasa

• philosofical discussion aimed at the ascertainment of truth. (Advaita and Visistadvaita, Glossario)

vada-grantha (vada-grantha)

a tretise containing philosophical discussion, polemic work. (Advaita and Visistadvaita, Glossario)

VaikuN˜ha (Vaikuntha)

• i pianeti spirituali. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

vairagin

in Hinduism, a religious ascetic who worships principally one or another form of the god Vishnu. Vairagins generally wear white robes, in contrast to the ochre-coloured robes worn by Shaiva ascetics, and are also differentiated by their tilak (sect mark on the forehead), which is never made of ash and is always vertical in design.

Most vairagins, when not wandering or on pilgrimage,

reside in monastic communities called sthanas (“spots”

or “places”); but the naga (“naked”) vairagins, who are also the militants among the Vaisnava ascetics, form their own groups,

called akharas. In the past, battles between groups of

naked ascetics belonging to different sects centred mainly on

bathing and processional rights during pilgrimage assemblies,

such as the Kumbha Mela. (1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica)

vairagya (vairagya)

non-attachment to wordly objects, absence of desire for anything except the Lord. (Advaita and Visistadvaita, Glossario)

vaisesika

also spelled VAISESIKA, Sanskrit VAIShESIKA (“Particular”), one of the six orthodox systems (darshans) of Indian philosophy, significant for its naturalism, a feature that is not characteristic of most Indian thought. The Sanskrit philosopher Kanada Kashyapa (2nd-3rd century ADa) expounded its theories and is credited with founding the school. Important later commentaries were written by Prashastapada, Udayana, and Shridhara. After a period of independence, the Vaisheshika school fused entirely with the Nyaya (q.v.) school, a process that was completed in the 11th century. Thereafter the combined school was referred to as Nyaya-Vaisheshika. The Vaisheshika school attempts to identify, inventory, and classify the entities and their relations that present themselves to human perceptions. It lists six categories of being (padarthas), to which was later added a seventh. These are:

(1) Dravya, or substance, the substratum that exist independently

of all other categories, and the material cause of all compound

things produced from it. Dravyas are nine in number:

earth, water, fire, air, ether, time, space, spirit, and mind.

(2) Guna, or quality, which in turn is subdivided into 24 species.

(3) Karman, or action. Both guna and karman inhere within dravya and cannot exist independently of it.

(4) Samanya, or genus, which denotes characteristic similarities that allow

two or more objects to be classed together.

(5) Vishesa, or specific difference, which singles out an individual of that class.

(6) Samavaya, or inherence, which indicates things inseparably connected.

To these six was later added abhava, nonexistence or absence. Though negative in content, the impression it makes is positive; one has a perception of an absence where one misses something. Four such absences are recognized: previous absence, as of a new product; later absence, as of a destroyed object; total absence, as of colour in the wind; and reciprocal absence, as of a jar and a cloth, neither of which is the other.

The Vaisheshika system holds that the smallest, indivisible,

indestructible part of the world is an atom (anu). All physical things are a combination of the atoms of earth, water, fire, and air. Inactive and motionless

in themselves, the atoms are put into motion by God’s will,

through the unseen forces of moral merit and demerit. (1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica)

vaisnava (filosofia)

also called VISHNUISM, or VISNUISM, Sanskrit VAISNAVISM, worship of the god Vishnu and of his incarnations, principally as Rama and as Krishna. It is one of the major forms of modern Hinduism–with Shaivism and Shaktism (Shaktism).

A major characteristic of Vaishnavism is the strong part played by bhakti, or religious devotion. The ultimate goal of the devotee is to escape from the cycle of birth and death so as to enjoy the presence of Vishnu. This cannot be achieved without the grace of God. Vishnu is not only the end (upeya) but

also the means (upaya). For his part, the devotee must

cultivate the auxiliary disciplines of karman, the path

of good works, and jnana, the way of spiritual

knowledge.

Sectarian Vaishnavism had its beginnings in the cult of Vasudeva-Krishna, who may have been a Yadava tribal leader (c. 7th-6th century BC). The Vasudeva cult coalesced with others worshiping the deified sage Narayana

so that by about the 2nd century AD Vasudeva, Krishna,

and Narayana appeared in the celebrated

religious poem the Bhagavadgita as interchangeable names

of Lord Vishnu. The cult of the pastoral Krishna was soon added.

The philosophical schools of Vaishnavism differ in their interpretation

of the relationship between individual souls and God. The doctrines

of the mosst important schools are: (1) vishistadvaita (“qualified monism”), associated with the name of Ramanuja (11th century) and continued by the Shrivaisnava sect, prominent

in South India; (2) dvaita (“dualism”), the principal exponent of which was Madhva (13th century), who taught that although the soul is dependent on God it is not an extension of God, that the soul

and God are separate entities; (3)

dvaitadvaita (“dualistic monism”), taught by Nimbarka

(12th century), according to which the world of souls and matter

is both different and not different from God; (4) shuddhadvaita (“pure monism”) of Vallabha, which explains the world without the doctrine of maya (illusion); (5) acintya-bhedabheda (“inconceivable duality and nonduality”), the doctrine of Caitanya, in which the relation between the world of souls and matter on the one hand and God on the other is not to be grasped by thought but is both different and nondifferent.

In addition to these philosophical schools, each of which has

its own sectarian following, Vaishnavism also includes a number

of popular expressions of devotionalism, which were furthered

in the late medieval period by the vernacular writings of Ramananda

and his disciples and by Vaishnava poets such as Tulsidas

in the Hindi area, Mira Bai in Gujarat,

and Namdev and Tukaram in the Maratha

country. (1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica)

Vallabha

also called VALLABHACARYA (b. 1479, Benares, Jaunpur,

India–d. 1531, Benares), Hindu philosopher and founder of the

important devotional sect the Vallabhacaryas, also known as the pustimarga (“the way of prosperity, or well-being”).

Born to a Telegu Brahman family, Vallabha showed precocity

in spiritual and intellectual matters from an early age. He

initiated his first disciple in 1493 at Mathura, which became

the centre of his activities, though he undertook several pilgrimages

throughout India, propagating his doctrine of bhakti (devotion)

to the god Krishna. It was near Mathura, at the foot of Mount

Govardhana, that Vallabha discovered the central cult object

of the sect, an image of Krishna called Shri-Nathaji.

Vallabhacarya (acarya, “teacher”) himself

belonged to the Rudra sect established by Visnusvamin, and his philosophical system of pure nondualism (shuddhadvaita)–i.e., the identity of God and the universe–closely follows that of the Visnusvamin tradition. God is worshiped not by fasting and physical austerities but by love of him and of the universe. Salvation arises only by virtue of the grace of God. In order to receive divine love, the devotee must surrender himself wholly (samarpana) to God’s gift of love.

Vallabha was married and had two sons, though he became a sannyasin

(ascetic) shortly before his death. His son Vitthala

succeeded him as head of the Vallabhacarya sect.

(1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica)

Vasudeva

in Hindu mythology, the patronymic of Krishna (Krsna), who, according to one tradition, was a son of Vasudeva. The worshipers of Vasudeva, or Krishna, formed one of the earliest theistic devotional movements within Hinduism. When they merged with other groups, namely the Bhagavata, they represented the beginnings of modern Vaisnavism, or worship of Lord Vishnu. A significant 2nd-century-BC inscription at Besnagar, near Vidisha (Bhilsa), Madhya Pradesh, refers to a column topped by a figure of Garuda (the emblem or mount of Lord Vishnu), erected in honour of Vasudeva by the Indo-Greek ambassador Heliodorus, who termed himself a “Bhagavata.” Though, in the earliest parts of the great Indian epic the Mahabharata, the divinity of Krishna appears to be still open to doubt, by the time of the writing of the Bhagavadgita (1st-2nd century AD), Vasudeva-Krishna

was clearly identified with the Vedic god Vishnu.

(1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica)

Veda

Scienze vediche

Rasi: artmetica e algebra

Daiva: la scienza che tratta degli avvenimenti fisici accidentali

Nidhi: la scienza che regola la divisione del tempo in mahakala, kala, ecc

Tarka: la logica

Niti: politica

Deva vidya (nirukta): spiegazione di glossario di termini astrusi, specialmete quelli che vengono trovati nei Veda

Brahma-vidya: articulation, cerimonials and prosody

Devajana-vidya: la scienza di fare essenze, della danza, del canto, della musica, dell’architettura e della pittura

Bhuta-vidya: la scienza degli spiriti

Ksetra-vidya: archery

Sarpa-vidya: la scienza degli antidoti

(Chhandogya Upanisad 7.1. da 2 in poi)

• Hinduism: Sacred texts: VEDAS: The components of the Veda. he Veda is the product of the Aryan invaders of the Indian subcontinent and their descendants, although the original inhabitants (disdainfully called dacute;syus, or “slaves,” in the Veda) may very well have exerted an influence on the final product. The Veda represents the particular interests of two classes of Aryan society, the priests Brahmans) and the warrior-kings (Ksatriyas), who together ruled over the far more numerous peasants (Vaishyas). Vedic literature ranges from the Rigveda (Rgveda; c. 1400 BC) to the Upanishads (Upanisads; c. 1000-500 BC). This literature provides the sole documentation for all Indian religion before Buddhism and the early texts of classical Hinduism. Because it is the literature of a ruling class, it probably does not represent all the myths and cults of the early Indo-Aryans, let alone those of the non-Aryans. The most important texts are the four collections (Samhitas) known as the Veda or Vedas (i.e., “Book[s] of Knowledge”): the Rigveda (“Wisdom of the Verses”), the Yajurveda (“Wisdom

of the Sacrificial Formulas”), the Samaveda (“Wisdom

of the Chants”), and the Atharvaveda (“Wisdom of the Atharvan

Priests”). Of these, the Rigveda is the oldest.

In the Vedic texts following these earliest compilations, the

Brahmanas (discussions of the ritual), Aranyakas (books studied in the forest), and Upanishads (secret teachings concerning cosmic equations), the interest in the early Rigvedic

gods wanes, and they become little more than accessories to

the Vedic rite. Polytheism begins to be replaced by a sacrificial

pantheism of Prajapati (“Lord of Creatures”), who is the All. In the

Upanishads Prajapati merges with the concept of brahman, the supreme reality and substance of the universe (not to be confused with the Hindu god Brahma), replacing any specific personification, thus transforming the mythology into abstract philosophy.

Together, the components of each of the four Vedas–the Samhitas, Brahmanas, Aranyakas, and Upanishads–constitute

the revealed scripture of Hinduism, or the Sruti (Shruti; “Heard”). All other works–in which the actual doctrines and practices of Hindus are encoded–are recognized as having been composed by human authors and are thus classed

as Smriti (Smrti; “Remembered”). The categorization of Veda,

however, is capable of elasticity. First, the Sruti is not exactly

closed; Upanishads, for example, have been composed until recent

times. Second, the texts categorized as Smriti inevitably claim

to be in accord with the authoritative Sruti, and thus worthy

of the same respect and sacredness. For Hindus, the Veda is

a symbol of unchallenged authority and tradition.

(1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica)

Veda sacred hymn or verse composed in archaic Sanskrit and current among the Indo-European-speaking peoples who entered India from the Iranian regions. No definite date can be ascribed to the composition of the Vedas, some of which possess high literary merit, but the period of about 1500-1200 BC would be acceptable to most scholars. The hymns formed a liturgical body that in part grew up around the cult of the soma ritual and the sacrifice. They extolled the hereditary deities, who for the most part personified various natural and cosmic phenomena, such as fire (Agni), sun (Surya and Savitr), dawn (Usas), storms (the Rudras), war and rain (Indra), honour (Mitra), divine authority (Varuna), and creation (Indra, with some aid of Vishnu). Hymns were composed to these deities, and many were recited or chanted during rituals.

The foremost collection, or Samhita, of such

hymns, from which the hotr (chief priest) drew the material for his recitations, is the Rigveda. Sacred formulas known as mantras were recited by the priest responsible for the sacrificial fire and the carrying out of the ceremony; these mantras and verses in time were drawn into Samhitas known collectively as Yajurveda. A third group of priests, headed by the udgatr (“chanter”), performed melodic recitations linked to verses that, although drawn almost entirely from the Rigveda, came to be arranged as a separate Samhita, the Samaveda (“Veda of the Chants”). To these three Vedas–Rg, Yajur, and Sama, known as the trayi-vidya (“threefold knowledge”)–is added a fourth, the Atharvaveda, a collection of hymns, magic spells, and incantations that represents a more folk level of religion and remains partly outside the Vedic sacrifice.

The entire corpus of Vedic literature–the Samhitas and the expositions that came to be attached to them, the Brahmanas, the Aranyakas, and the Upanishads–was considered Shruti, the product of divine revelation. The whole of the literature seems to have been preserved orally (although there must early have been manuscripts to assist memory). Even today several of these works, notably the three oldest Vedas, are recited with subtleties of intonation and rhythm that have been handed down from the early days of Vedic religion (q.v.) in India.

(1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica)

sacred hymn or verse composed in archaic Sanskrit and current

among the Indo-European-speaking peoples who entered India from

the Iranian regions. No definite date can be ascribed to the

composition of the Vedas, some of which possess high literary

merit, but the period of about 1500-1200 BC would be acceptable

to most scholars. The hymns formed a liturgical body that in

part grew up around the cult of the soma ritual and the sacrifice.

They extolled the hereditary deities, who for the most part

personified various natural and cosmic phenomena, such as fire

(Agni), sun (Surya and Savitr), dawn (Usas),

storms (the Rudras), war and rain (Indra), honour (Mitra), divine

authority (Varuna), and creation (Indra, with some aid

of Vishnu). Hymns were composed to these deities, and many were

recited or chanted during rituals.

The foremost collection, or Samhita, of such

hymns, from which the hotr (chief priest) drew the material

for his recitations, is the Rigveda. Sacred formulas known as mantras were recited by the priest responsible for the sacrificial fire and the carrying

out of the ceremony; these mantras and verses in time were drawn

into Samhitas known collectively as Yajurveda. A third group of priests, headed by the udgatr (“chanter”), performed melodic recitations linked to verses that, although drawn almost entirely from the Rigveda, came

to be arranged as a separate Samhita, the Samaveda (“Veda of the Chants”). To these three Vedas–Rg,

Yajur, and Sama, known as the trayi-vidya (“threefold

knowledge”)–is added a fourth, the Atharvaveda, a collection of hymns, magic spells, and incantations that represents a more folk level of religion and remains partly outside the Vedic sacrifice.

The entire corpus of Vedic literature–the Samhitas

and the expositions that came to be attached to them, the Brahmanas,

the Aranyakas, and the Upanishads–was considered

Shruti, the product of divine revelation. The whole of

the literature seems to have been preserved orally (although

there must early have been manuscripts to assist memory). Even

today several of these works, notably the three oldest Vedas,

are recited with subtleties of intonation and rhythm that have

been handed down from the early days of Vedic religion (q.v.) in India.

(1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica)

Hinduism: Sacred texts

Importance of the Vedas.

The Veda, meaning “Knowledge,” is a collective term for the sacred

scriptures of the Hindus. Since about the 5th century BC, the

Veda has been considered to be the creation of neither human

nor god; rather, it is regarded as the eternal Truth that was

in ancient times directly revealed to or “heard” by gifted and

inspired seers (rishis) who transcribed it into the most perfect

human language, Sanskrit. Although most of the religion of the

Vedic texts, which revolves around rituals of fire sacrifice, has been eclipsed by Hindu doctrines and practices, the absolute authority and sacredness of the Veda remains a central tenet of virtually all Hindu sects and traditions. Even today, as it has been for several millennia, parts of the Veda are memorized and recited as a religious act of great merit.

(1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica)

South Asian Arts: Music: ANTIQUITY: Vedic chant.

Compilation of hymns.

It is generally thought among scholars that the Indus Valley

civilization was terminated by the arrival of bands of semi-nomadic

tribesmen, the Aryans, who descended into India from the northwest,

probably in the first half of the 2nd millennium BC. An important

aspect of Aryan religious life was the bard-priest who composed hymns

in praise of gods, to be sung or chanted at sacrifices. This

tradition was continued in the invaders’ new home in northern

India until a sizable body of oral religious poetry had been composed. By about 1000 BC this body of chanted poetry had apparently grown to unmanageable

proportions, and the best of the poems were formed into an anthology

called Rigveda, which was then canonized. It was not committed to writing,

but text and chanting formula were carefully handed down by

word of mouth from one generation to the next, up to the present

period. The poems in the Rigveda are arranged according to the

priestly families who used and, presumably, had composed the

hymns. Shortly after this a new Veda, called the Yajurveda, basically a methodical rearrangement of the verses of the Rigveda with certain additions in prose, was created to serve as a kind of manual for the priest officiating at the

sacrifices. At approximately the same time, a third Veda, the Samaveda, was created for liturgical purposes. The Samaveda was also derived from the hymns of the Rigveda, but the words were distorted by the repetition of syllables, pauses, prolongations, and phonetic changes, as well as the insertion of certain meaningless syllables believed to have magical significance. A fourth Veda, the Atharvaveda, was accepted as a Veda considerably later and is quite unrelated to the other three. It represents the more popular aspects of the Aryan religion and consists mostly of magic spells and incantations.

Each of these Vedas has several ancillary texts, called the Brahmanas, Aranyakas, and Upanisads, which are also regarded as part of the Vedas. These ancillary texts are concerned primarily with mystical speculations, symbolism, and the cosmological significance of the sacrifice. The Vedic literature was oral and not written down until very

much later, the first reference to a written Vedic text being

in the 10th century AD. In order to ensure the purity of the

Vedas, the slightest change was forbidden, and the priests devised

systems of checks and counterchecks, so that there has been

virtually no change in these texts for about 3,000 years. Underlying

this was the belief that the correct recitation of the Vedas

was “the pivot of the universe” and that the slightest mistake

would have disastrous cosmic consequence unless expiated by

sacrifice and prayer. The Vedas are still chanted by the Brahmin

priests at weddings, initiations, funerals, and the like, in

the daily devotions of the priests, and at the now rarely held

so-called public sacrifices.

From the Vedic literature it is apparent that music played

an important part in the lives of the Aryan peoples, and there

are references to stringed instruments, wind instruments, and

several types of drums and cymbals. Songs, instrumental music,

and dance are mentioned as being an integral part of some of

the sacrificial ceremonies. The bow harp (vina), a stringed

instrument (probably a board zither) with 100 strings, and the

bamboo flute were the most prominent melody instruments. Little

is known of the music, however, apart from the Vedic chanting,

which can still be heard today.

(1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica)

Hinduism: Sacred texts: VEDAS: Elaborations of text and ritual: the later Vedas.

The chronology of later Vedic developments is extremely vague,

but it probably encompasses the period from 1000 to 500 BC,

which are the dates of the Painted Grayware strata in the archaeological

sites of the western Ganges Valley. These excavations reflect

a culture still without writing but showing considerable advances

in civilization. Nothing, however, has been discovered from

sites of this period that throws much light on the religious

situation, and historians still must rely on the following texts

to describe this phase of the religion.

The Yajurveda and Samaveda.

The Yajurveda and Samaveda are completely subordinate to the liturgy. The Yajurveda contains the lines, usually in brief prose, with which the executive priest (adhvaryu) accompanies his ritual manipulations, addressing the implements he handles and the offering he pours and admonishing other priests to do their invocations. The Samaveda is a collection of verses from the Rigveda (and a few new ones) that were chanted with certain fixed melodies.

The Atharvaveda.

The Atharvaveda stands apart from other Vedic texts. It contains

both hymns and prose passages and is divided into 20 books.

Books 1-7 contain magical prayers for precise purposes: spells

for a long life, cures, curses, love charms, prayers for prosperity,

charms for kingship and Brahmanhood, and expiations for evil

committed. They reflect the magical-religious concerns of everyday

life and are on a different level than the Rigveda, which glorifies

the great gods and their liturgy. Books 8-12 contain similar

texts but also include cosmological hymns that continue those

of the Rigveda and provide a transition to the more complex

speculations of the Upanishads. Books 13-20 celebrate the cosmic

principle (book 13) and present marriage prayers (book 14),

funeral formulas (book 18), and other magical and ritual formulas.

This text is an extremely important source of knowledge of practical

religion and magic, particularly where it complements the one-sided

picture of the Rigveda. Many rites are also laid down in the

“Kaushikasutra” (manual of the Kaushika

family of priests) of the Atharvaveda.

(1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica)

Indian Philosophy: General considerations: ROLES OF SACRED TEXTS, MYTHOLOGY, AND THEISM

The role of the sacred texts in the growth of Indian philosophy

is different in each of the different systems. In those systems

that may be called adhyatmavidya, or sciences of spirituality, the sacred

texts play a much greater role than they do in the logical systems

(anviksikividya). In the case of the former, Shankara,

a leading Advaita Vedanta philosopher (c. 788-820), perhaps best laid down the principles: reasoning should be allowed

freedom only as long as it does not conflict with the scriptures.

In matters regarding supersensible reality, reasoning left to

itself cannot deliver certainty, for, according to Shankara,

every thesis established by reasoning may be countered by an

opposite thesis supported by equally strong, if not stronger,

reasoning. The sacred scriptures, embodying as they do the results

of intuitive experiences of seers, therefore, should be accepted

as authoritative, and reasoning should be made subordinate to

them.

Whereas the sacred texts thus continued to exercise some influence

on philosophical thinking, the influence of mythology declined

considerably with the rise of the systems. The myths of creation

and dissolution of the universe persisted in the theistic systems

but were transformed into metaphors and models. With the Nyaya

(problem of knowledge)-Vaishesika (analysis of nature) systems, for example, the model of a potter making pots determined much philosophical thinking, as did that of a magician conjuring up tricks in the Advaita (nondualist) Vedanta. The nirukta (etymology) of Yaska, a 5th-century-BC Sanskrit scholar, tells of various attempts to interpret difficult Vedic mythologies: the adhidaivata (pertaining to the deities), the aitihasika (pertaining to the tradition), the adhiyajna (pertaining to the sacrifices), and the adhyatmika (pertaining to the spirit). Such interpretations apparently prevailed in the Upanisads; the myths were turned into symbols, though some of them persisted as models and metaphors.

The issue of theism vis-agrave;-vis atheism, in the ordinary senses of the English words, played an important role in Indian thought. The ancient Indian tradition, however, classified the classical systems (darshanas)

into orthodox (astika) and unorthodox (nastika).

Astika does not mean “theistic,” nor does nastika

mean “atheistic.”

Panini, a 5th-century-BC grammarian, stated that

the former is one who believes in a transcendent world (asti

paralokah) and the latter is one who does not believe in

it (nasti paralokah). Astika may also mean one

who accepts the authority of the Vedas; nastika then

means one who does not accept that authority. Not all among

the astika philosophers, however, were theists, and even

if they were, they did not all accord the same importance to

the concept of God in their systems. The Samkhya system did not involve belief in the existence of God, without ceasing to be astika, and Yoga (a mental-psychological-physical meditation system) made room for God not on theoretical grounds but only on practical considerations. The Purva-Mimamsa

of Jaimini, the greatest philosopher of the Mimamsa school, posits various deities to account for the significance of Vedic rituals but ignores, without denying, the question of the existence of God. The Advaita Vedanta of Shankara

rejects atheism in order to prove that the world had its origin

in a conscious, spiritual being called Ishvara, or God, but in the long run regards the concept of Ishvara as a concept of lower order that becomes negated by a metaphysical knowledge of Brahman,

the absolute, nondual reality. Only the non-Advaita schools

of Vedanta and the Nyaya-Vaishesika

remain zealous theists, and of these schools, the god of the

Nyaya-Vaishesika school does not create

the eternal atoms, universals, or individual souls. For a truly

theistic conception of God, one has to look to the non-Advaita

schools of Vedanta, the Vaisnava, and the

Shaiva philosophical systems. Whereas Hindu religious

life continues to be dominated by these last-mentioned theistic

systems, the philosophies went their own ways, far removed from

that religious demand.

(1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica)

Vedic religion

also called VEDISM, the religion of the ancient Indo-European-speaking peoples who entered India about 1500 BC from the region of present-day Iran; it takes its name from the collections of sacred texts known as the Vedas. Vedism is the oldest stratum of religious activity in India for which there exist written materials. It was the starting point of Hinduism.

Knowledge of Vedic religion is derived from surviving texts

and also from certain rites that continue to be observed within

the framework of modern Hinduism. The earliest Vedic religious

beliefs included some held in common with other Indo-European-speaking

peoples, particularly with the early Iranians. Though it is

impossible to say when Vedism eventually gave way to classical

Hinduism, a decrease in literary activity among the Vedic schools

from the 5th century BC onward can be observed, and about this

time texts of Hindu character began to appear.

Vedic texts.

The only extant Vedic materials are the

texts known as the Vedas, which were written down over a period

of about 10 centuries, from about the 15th to the 5th century

BC, this being the period when Vedism was a living force. The

Vedic corpus is written in an archaic Sanskrit. The most important

texts are also the oldest ones. They are the four collections

(Samhita) that we call the Veda, or Vedas. The Rigveda, or “Veda of Verses,” the earliest of these, is composed

of about 1,000 hymns addressed to various deities, and mostly

arranged to serve the needs of the priestly families who were

the custodians of this sacred literature. The Yajurveda, or “Veda of Sacrificial Formulas,” contains prose formulas applicable to various cultic rites, along with verses intended for a similar purpose. The Samaveda, or “Veda of Chants” is made up of a selection of verses (drawn almost wholly from the Rigveda) that are provided with musical notation and are intended as an aid to the performance of sacred songs. Finally, the Atharvaveda is considered to be either of less worth than or of similar content to the three earlier collections.

To each Veda is attached a body of prose writings of later date called

Brahmanas (c. 800-600 BC), which are intended

to explain the ceremonial applications of the texts and the

origin and importance of the sacrificial rites for which the

Vedas were supposed to have been composed. Further appendices,

the Aranyakas (c. 600 BC) and the Upanishads (c. 700-500 BC), respectively expound the symbolism of the more difficult rites and speculate on the nature of the universe and man’s relation to it.

When Vedic religion gradually evolved into Hinduism between

the 6th and 2nd centuries BC, these texts taken collectively

became the most sacred literature of Hinduism. They are known as Sruti, or the divinely revealed section of Hindu literature, in contrast to the later strata of religious literature known as Smriti, or traditional texts based on human memory. But in modern Hinduism the Sruti, with the exception of the Upanishads and a few hymns of the Rigveda, is now little known, while some of the Smriti texts, notably the Bhagavadgita, are extremely influential.

Mythology.

Vedism was a polytheistic sacrificial religion that was very different from its successor, Hinduism. Vedism involved the worship of numerous male divinities who were connected with the sky and natural phenomena. The priests

who officiated at this worship were known as Brahmans. The complex

Vedic ceremonies, for which the hymns of the Rigveda were composed,

centred on the ritual sacrifice of animals and with the pressing

and drinking of a sacred intoxicating liquor

called soma (q.v.). The basic Vedic rite was performed by offering these edibles to a sacred fire, and this fire, which was itself deified as Agni, carried the oblations to the gods of the Vedic pantheon. The greatest deities of Vedism were at the same time material elements of the ritual offering: on the one hand, Agni (i.e., fire), which was equally the fire of the sun, of lightning,

of burning wood, and of that which made light for the purpose

of religious worship; and on the other hand, Soma, which was

simply the deified aspect of the liquid poured in the oblation.

The god of highest rank, however, was Indra, a warlike god who conquered innumerable human and demon enemies and vanquished the sun, among other epic feats. Another great deity was Varuna, who was the upholder of the cosmic and moral laws. Vedism had many other lesser deities, among whom were gods, demigods, and demons.

Ritual.

The ancient Vedic worshipers offered sacrifices to these gods in the hope that they in return would grant abundant numbers of cattle, good fortune, good health, long life, and male progeny, among other material benefits. To ensure the efficacy of their prayers, the people came to believe that their offerings could be made more acceptable to the gods if accompanied by songs of praise and other invocations of the gods’ might and power. Thus originated the rites described in the Vedas. Every sacrifice was performed on behalf of an individual, the yajamana (“sacrificer”), who bore the expenses.

The rites of Vedic sacrifice were relatively simple in the

early period, when the Rigveda was written down. They required

neither temples nor images; the ceremonies took place in an

open space that was consecrated afresh for every important occasion.

The altar (vedi) was a quadrangle marked out by hollowing or

slightly raising the ground. The agnyadheya (“installation

of the fire”) was a necessary preliminary to all the large public

rituals and was preceded by the patron’s fast. The sacrifices

themselves were of two major types–domestic (grhya)

and public (srauta, or vaitanika). The domestic

rites were observed by the householder himself or with the help

of a single priest and were performed over the domestic hearth

fire. Some occurred daily or monthly, and others accompanied

a particular event, such as the samskaras, sacraments marking

each stage of an upper-caste Indian’s life, from conception

to death. The grand rites performed in public, by contrast,

lasted several days or months and could usually be undertaken

only by wealthy men or kings. They required the services of

many priests and were usually performed at three fire-altars.

Most characteristic of the public ceremonies was the soma sacrifice,

which ensured the prosperity and well-being of both men and

gods. In this basic ritual, a lay sacrificer was first consecrated,

after which juice was pressed three times from the soma plant,

part being offered to the fire and part consumed by the priests.

Each of the three occasions was preceded and followed by recitations

and chants. Edibles such as meat, butter, milk, and barley cake

could also be offered to a sacred fire. Animal sacrifice–the

killing of a ram–existed either independently or as an integral

part of the sacrifice of soma. The celebrated ashvamedha (q.v.), or “horse-sacrifice,” was an elaborate variant of the soma sacrifice. Human sacrifice (purusamedha) is described and alluded to as a former

practice but may have been more symbolic than actual. The sacrifice

of the mythical giant Purusa, from whose dismembered limbs sprang up the four major castes, probably served as a model for the conjectured human sacrifices. Other ceremonies marked fixed dates of the lunar calendar, such as the full or new moon or the change of seasons.

Development and decline.

Over the centuries, the Vedic rites became increasingly complex and governed by innumerable rules, which were embodied, together with the hymns and prayer formulas used, in the Vedas. During the late Vedic period, the complexities of ritual were emphasized to such an extent that only highly

trained Brahmans and priests could carry them out correctly,

and it was maintained that if rites were improperly or incorrectly

performed, they could, unless rectified, bring about disaster

or death.

In reaction against this excessive emphasis on ritual (as well

as the growing power of the Brahmans), Vedic thought in its

late period became more speculative and philosophical in approach,

and more refined and subtle in quality. Much speculation was

directed toward the search for harmony and for correspondences

between macrocosm and microcosm, with the ultimate goal being

a reduction of reality to an all-embracing unity by way of successive

equations. In the Aranyakas, Vedic ritual is interpreted

in a symbolic rather than a literal manner, and the Upanishads

question the very assumptions on which Vedism rested. The crucial

idea that emerged from this period of intense questioning was

that of brahma, which tended to become a sort of guiding principle,

a sort of universal soul, in which the individual soul, or atman, is merged. The equation of atman (the self) with brahma (ultimate reality) became the basis of Hindu metaphysics. The spread in the 6th century BC of the related concepts of the

reincarnation of souls, of karma, and of the attainment of release

from this cycle by meditation rather than through sacrifice

marked the end of the Vedic period and the appearance of Hinduism.

The legacy of Vedic worship is apparent in several aspects

of modern Hinduism. The basic stratification of Vedic society

into four social classes, or varnas–Brahmans (priests or teachers),

Kshatriyas (rulers), Vaishyas (traders), and Shudras

(non-Aryan serfs)–by and large persisted in later Hinduism.

Sacrifices performed according to Vedic rites continue to be

performed in India occasionally, and the offering of oblations

to a sacred fire (homa) is an important element of much

modern Hindu worship The Hindu rite of initiation (upanayama) is another direct survival of Vedic tradition. Vishnu and Shiva, the major deities of classical Hinduism, also figured in Vedic mythology, though unimportantly.

(1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica)

Britannica Search: veda

Veda sacred hymn or verse composed in archaic Sanskrit and current

among the Indo-European-speaking peoples who entered India from

the Iranian regions. No definite date can be ascribed to the

composition of the Vedas, some of which possess high literary

merit, but the period of about 1500-1200 BC would be acceptable

to most scholars. The hymns . . .

Hinduism: Sacred texts: VEDAS: The components of the Veda.

The Veda is the product of the Aryan invaders of the Indian subcontinent and their descendants, although the original inhabitants (disdainfully called dacute;syus, or “slaves,” in the Veda) may very well have exerted an influence on the final product. The Veda represents the particular interests of . . .

Veda, meaning “Knowledge,” is a collective term for the sacred

scriptures of the Hindus. Since about the 5th century BC, the

Veda has been considered to be the creation of neither human

nor god; rather, it is regarded as the eternal Truth that was

in ancient times directly revealed to or “heard” by . . .

Atharvaveda

collection of hymns and incantations that forms part of the ancient sacred literature of India known as the Vedas.

also spelled RGVEDA, collection

of hymns that forms part of the ancient sacred literature of

India known as the Vedas. See Veda.

Yajurveda collection of mantras (sacred formulas) and verses that forms

part of the ancient sacred literature of India known as the

Vedas.

also called VEDISM, the religion of the ancient Indo-European-speaking

peoples who entered India about 1500 BC from the region of present-day

Iran; it takes its name from the collections of sacred texts

known as the Vedas. Vedism is the oldest stratum of religious

activity in India for which there exist . . .

It is generally thought among scholars that the Indus Valley

civilization was terminated by the arrival of bands of semi-nomadic

tribesmen, the Aryans, who descended into India from the northwest,

probably in the first half of the 2nd millennium BC. An important

aspect of Aryan religious life was the . . .

(1996, Encyclopaedia Britannica)

Hinduism: General nature and characteristic features: COMMON CHARACTERISTICS OF HINDU BELIEF

Nevertheless, it is possible to discern among the myriad forms

of Hinduism several common characteristics of belief and practice.

Authority of the Veda and the Brahman class.

Perhaps the defining characteristic of Hindu belief is the recognition of the Veda, the most ancient body of religious literature, as an absolute

authority revealing fundamental and unassailable truth. At the

same time, however, its content has long been practically unknown

to most Hindus, and it is seldom drawn upon for literal information

or advice. Still, it is venerated from a distance by every traditional

Hindu, and those Indians who reject its authority (such as Buddhists

and Jains) are regarded as unfaithful to their tradition. The

Veda is also regarded as the basis of all the later Shastraic

texts used in Hindu doctrine and practice. Parts of the Veda

are still quoted in essential Hindu rituals, and it is the source

of many enduring patterns of Hindu thought.

Also characteristic of Hinduism is the belief in the power of the

Brahmans, a priestly class possessing spiritual supremacy by

birth. As special manifestations of religious power and as bearers

and teachers of the Veda, Brahmans are considered to represent

the ideal of ritual purity and social prestige.

(1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica)

Hinduism: General nature and characteristic features: COMMON CHARACTERISTICS OF HINDU BELIEF

Nevertheless, it is possible to discern among the myriad forms

of Hinduism several common characteristics of belief and practice.

Authority of the Veda and the Brahman class.

Perhaps the defining characteristic of Hindu belief is the recognition of the Veda, the most ancient body of religious literature, as an absolute authority revealing fundamental and unassailable truth. At the same time, however, its content has long been practically unknown to most Hindus, and it is seldom drawn upon for literal information or advice. Still, it is venerated from a distance by every traditional Hindu, and those Indians who reject its authority (such as Buddhists and Jains) are regarded as unfaithful to their tradition. The Veda is also regarded as the basis of all the later Shastraic texts used in Hindu doctrine and practice. Parts of the Veda are still quoted in essential Hindu rituals, and it is the source of many enduring patterns of Hindu thought.

Also characteristic of Hinduism is the belief in the power of the Brahmans, a priestly class possessing spiritual supremacy by birth. As special manifestations of religious power and as bearers and teachers of the Veda, Brahmans are considered to represent the ideal of ritual purity and social prestige.

(1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica)

Vedic religion

also called VEDISM, the religion of the ancient Indo-European-speaking

peoples who entered India about 1500 BC from the region of present-day

Iran; it takes its name from the collections of sacred texts

known as the Vedas. Vedism is the oldest stratum of religious

activity in India for which there exist written materials. It

was the starting point of Hinduism.

Knowledge of Vedic religion is derived from surviving texts

and also from certain rites that continue to be observed within

the framework of modern Hinduism. The earliest Vedic religious

beliefs included some held in common with other Indo-European-speaking

peoples, particularly with the early Iranians. Though it is

impossible to say when Vedism eventually gave way to classical

Hinduism, a decrease in literary activity among the Vedic schools

from the 5th century BC onward can be observed, and about this

time texts of Hindu character began to appear.

Vedic texts.

The only extant Vedic materials are the texts known as the Vedas, which were written down over a period of about 10 centuries, from about the 15th to the 5th century BC, this being the period when Vedism was a living force. The

Vedic corpus is written in an archaic Sanskrit. The most important

texts are also the oldest ones. They are the four collections

(Samhita) that we call the Veda, or Vedas. The Rigveda, or “Veda of Verses,” the earliest of these, is composed of about 1,000 hymns addressed to various deities, and mostly arranged to serve the needs of the priestly families who were the custodians of this sacred literature. The Yajurveda, or “Veda of Sacrificial Formulas,” contains prose formulas applicable to various cultic rites, along with verses intended for a similar purpose. The Samaveda, or “Veda of Chants” is made up of a selection of verses (drawn almost wholly from the Rigveda) that are provided with musical notation and are intended as an aid to the performance of sacred songs. Finally, the Atharvaveda is considered to be either of less worth than or of similar content to the three earlier collections.

To each Veda is attached a body of prose writings of later date called Brahmanas (c. 800-600 BC), which are intended to explain the ceremonial applications of the texts and the origin and importance of the sacrificial rites for which the Vedas were supposed to have been composed. Further appendices, the Aranyakas (c. 600 BC) and the Upanishads (c. 700-500 BC), respectively expound the symbolism of the more difficult rites and speculate on the nature of the universe and man’s relation to it.

When Vedic religion gradually evolved into Hinduism between

the 6th and 2nd centuries BC, these texts taken collectively

became the most sacred literature of Hinduism. They are known

as Sruti, or the divinely revealed section of Hindu literature, in contrast to the later strata of religious literature known as Smriti, or traditional texts based on human memory. But in modern Hinduism the Sruti, with the exception of the Upanishads and a few hymns of the Rigveda, is now little known, while some of the Smriti texts, notably the Bhagavadgita, are extremely influential.

Mythology.

Vedism was a polytheistic sacrificial religion that was very different from its successor, Hinduism. Vedism involved the worship of numerous male divinities who

were connected with the sky and natural phenomena. The priests

who officiated at this worship were known as Brahmans. The complex

Vedic ceremonies, for which the hymns of the Rigveda were composed,

centred on the ritual sacrifice of animals and with the pressing

and drinking of a sacred intoxicating liquor called soma (q.v.).

The basic Vedic rite was performed by offering these edibles

to a sacred fire, and this fire, which was itself deified as Agni, carried the oblations to the gods of the Vedic pantheon. The greatest deities of Vedism were at the same time material elements of the ritual offering: on the one hand, Agni (i.e.,

fire), which was equally the fire of the sun, of lightning,

of burning wood, and of that which made light for the purpose

of religious worship; and on the other hand, Soma, which was

simply the deified aspect of the liquid poured in the oblation.

The god of highest rank, however, was Indra, a warlike god who conquered innumerable human and demon enemies and vanquished the sun, among other epic feats. Another great deity was Varuna, who was the upholder of the cosmic and moral laws. Vedism had many other lesser deities, among whom were gods, demigods, and demons.

Ritual.

The ancient Vedic worshipers offered sacrifices

to these gods in the hope that they in return would grant abundant

numbers of cattle, good fortune, good health, long life, and

male progeny, among other material benefits. To ensure the efficacy

of their prayers, the people came to believe that their offerings

could be made more acceptable to the gods if accompanied by

songs of praise and other invocations of the gods’ might and

power. Thus originated the rites described in the Vedas. Every

sacrifice was performed on behalf of an individual, the yajamana

(“sacrificer”), who bore the expenses.

The rites of Vedic sacrifice were relatively simple in the

early period, when the Rigveda was written down. They required

neither temples nor images; the ceremonies took place in an

open space that was consecrated afresh for every important occasion.

The altar (vedi) was a quadrangle marked out by hollowing or

slightly raising the ground. The agnyadheya (“installation

of the fire”) was a necessary preliminary to all the large public

rituals and was preceded by the patron’s fast. The sacrifices

themselves were of two major types–domestic (grhya)

and public (srauta, or vaitanika). The domestic

rites were observed by the householder himself or with the help

of a single priest and were performed over the domestic hearth

fire. Some occurred daily or monthly, and others accompanied

a particular event, such as the samskaras, sacraments marking

each stage of an upper-caste Indian’s life, from conception

to death. The grand rites performed in public, by contrast,

lasted several days or months and could usually be undertaken

only by wealthy men or kings. They required the services of

many priests and were usually performed at three fire-altars.

Most characteristic of the public ceremonies was the soma sacrifice,

which ensured the prosperity and well-being of both men and

gods. In this basic ritual, a lay sacrificer was first consecrated,

after which juice was pressed three times from the soma plant,

part being offered to the fire and part consumed by the priests.

Each of the three occasions was preceded and followed by recitations

and chants. Edibles such as meat, butter, milk, and barley cake

could also be offered to a sacred fire. Animal sacrifice–the

killing of a ram–existed either independently or as an integral

part of the sacrifice of soma. The celebrated ashvamedha (q.v.), or “horse-sacrifice,” was an elaborate variant of the soma sacrifice. Human sacrifice (purusamedha) is described and alluded to as a former

practice but may have been more symbolic than actual. The sacrifice

of the mythical giant Purusa, from whose dismembered

limbs sprang up the four major castes, probably served as a

model for the conjectured human sacrifices. Other ceremonies

marked fixed dates of the lunar calendar, such as the full or

new moon or the change of seasons.

Development and decline.

Over the centuries, the Vedic rites became

increasingly complex and governed by innumerable rules, which

were embodied, together with the hymns and prayer formulas used,

in the Vedas. During the late Vedic period, the complexities

of ritual were emphasized to such an extent that only highly

trained Brahmans and priests could carry them out correctly,

and it was maintained that if rites were improperly or incorrectly

performed, they could, unless rectified, bring about disaster

or death.

In reaction against this excessive emphasis on ritual (as well

as the growing power of the Brahmans), Vedic thought in its

late period became more speculative and philosophical in approach,

and more refined and subtle in quality. Much speculation was

directed toward the search for harmony and for correspondences

between macrocosm and microcosm, with the ultimate goal being

a reduction of reality to an all-embracing unity by way of successive

equations. In the Aranyakas, Vedic ritual is interpreted

in a symbolic rather than a literal manner, and the Upanishads

question the very assumptions on which Vedism rested. The crucial

idea that emerged from this period of intense questioning was

that of brahma, which tended to become a sort of guiding principle, a sort of universal soul, in which the individual soul, or atman, is merged. The equation of atman (the self) with brahma (ultimate reality) became the basis of Hindu metaphysics. The spread in the 6th century BC of the related concepts of the reincarnation of souls, of karma, and of the attainment of release from this cycle by meditation rather than through sacrifice marked the end of the Vedic period and the appearance of Hinduism.

The legacy of Vedic worship is apparent in several aspects

of modern Hinduism. The basic stratification of Vedic society

into four social classes, or varnas–Brahmans (priests or teachers),

Kshatriyas (rulers), Vaishyas (traders), and Shudras

(non-Aryan serfs)–by and large persisted in later Hinduism.

Sacrifices performed according to Vedic rites continue to be

performed in India occasionally, and the offering of oblations

to a sacred fire (homa) is an important element of much

modern Hindu worship. The Hindu rite of initiation (upanayama) is another direct survival of Vedic tradition. Vishnu and Shiva, the major deities of classical Hinduism, also figured in Vedic mythology, though unimportantly.

(1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica)

Vedanta

one of the six orthodox systems (darshans) of Indian philosophy

and the one that forms the basis of most modern schools of Hinduism.

The term Vedanta means in Sanskrit the “conclusion” (anta)

of the Vedas, the earliest sacred literature of India; it applies

to the Upanishads, which were elaborations of the Vedas, and to the

school that arose out of the “study” (mimamsa) of the Upanishads.

Thus Vedanta is also referred to as Vedanta Mimamsa (“Reflection on Vedanta”), Uttara-Mimamsa (“Reflection on the Latter Part of the Vedas”), and Brahma-Mimamsa

(“Reflection on Brahma”).

The three fundamental Vedanta texts are: the Upanishads

(the most favoured being the longer and older ones such as the

Brhadaranyaka, the Chandogya, the Taittiriya,

and the Katha); the Brahma-sutras (also called Vedanta-sutras), which are very brief, even one-word interpretations of the doctrine

of the Upanishads; and the famous poetic dialogue, the

Bhagavadgita (“Song of the Lord”), which, because of

its immense popularity, was drawn upon for support of the doctrines

found in the Upanishads.

No single interpretation of the texts emerged, and several

schools of Vedanta developed, differentiated by their

conceptions of the nature of the relationship and the degree

of identity between the individual self (atman) and the absolute

(brahma). These range from the nondualism (Advaita); q.v.) of the 8th-century philosopher Shankara to the theism (Vishistadvaita;

q.v.) of the 11th-12th-century thinker Ramanuja

and the dualism (Dvaita; q.v.) of the 13th-century thinker Madhva.

The Vedanta schools do, however, hold in common a number

of beliefs; transmigration of the self (samsara) and the desirability

of release from the cycle of rebirths; the authority of the

Veda on the means of release; that Brahman is both the material

(upadana) and the instrumental (nimitta) cause

of the world; and that the self (atman) is the agent of its

own acts (karma) and therefore the recipient of the fruits,

or consequences, of action (phala). All the Vedanta

schools unanimously reject both the heterodox (nastika)

philosophies of Buddhism and Jainism and the conclusions of

the other orthodox (astika) schools (Nyaya, Vaishesika,

Samkhya, Yoga, and, to some extent, the Purva-Mimamsa).

The influence of Vedanta on Indian thought has been

profound, so that it may be said that, in one or another of

its forms, Hindu philosophy has become Vedanta. Although

the preponderance of texts by Advaita scholastics has in the

West given rise to the erroneous impression that Vedanta

means Advaita, the nondualistic Advaita is but one of many Vedanta

schools.

(1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica)

Indian Philosophy: Historical development of Indian philosophy: FURTHER DEVELOPMENTS OF THE SYSTEM: Vedanta.: Varieties of Vedanta schools.

Though Vedanta is frequently referred to as one darshana

(viewpoint), there are, in fact, radically different schools

of Vedanta; what binds them together is common adherence

to a common set of texts. These texts are the Upanisads,

the Vedanta-sutras, and the Bhagavadgita–known as the three prasthanas (the basic scriptures, or texts) of the Vedanta. The founders of the various schools of Vedanta have all substantiated

their positions by commenting on these three source books. The

problems and issues around which their differences centre are

the nature of Brahman; the status of the phenomenal world; the

relation of finite individuals to the Brahman; and the nature

and the means to moksa, or liberation. The main schools

are: Shankara’s unqualified nondualism (shuddhadvaita);

Ramanuja’s qualified nondualism (vishistadvaita),

Madhva’s dualism (dvaita); Bhaskara’s doctrine of identity and difference (bhedabheda); and the schools of Nimbarka and Vallabha, which assert both identity and difference though with different emphasis on either of the two aspects. From the religious point of view, Shankara extolled metaphysical knowledge as the sole means to liberation and regarded even the concept of God as false; Ramanuja recommended the path of bhakti combined with knowledge and showed a more tolerant attitude toward the tradition of Vedic ritualism; and Madhva, Nimbarka, and Vallabha all propounded a personalistic theism in which love and devotion to a personal God are rated

highest. Although Shankara’s influence on Indian

philosophy could not be matched by these other schools of Vedanta,

in actual religious life the theistic Vedanta schools

have exercised a much greater influence than the abstract metaphysics

of Shankara.

(1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica)

vedana (vedana)

knowledge of Brahman. (Advaita and Visistadvaita, Glossario)

Vedanta-deika (Vedanta-desika)

• importante maestro ri-ramanuja. Notizia su lui e la sua filosofia possono essere trovate su“Advaita and Visistadvaita” di Srinivasacari. Egli devolse la sua vita a combattere la filosofia mayavada.

• also called VENKATANATHA (b. 1268, Tuppule, near Kanchipuram, Vijayanagar, India–d. 1370, Srirangam), leading theologian of the Vishistadvaita (Qualified Nondualism) school of philosophy and founder of the Vadakalai, a subsect of the Shrivaisnavas, a religious movement of South India.Vedantadeshika was born into a distinguished Shrivaisnava family that followed the teachings of Ramanuja, an 11th-12th-century saint. A precocious child, Vedantadeshika was said to have been taken at the age of five to meet the sect’s leader, Vatsya Varadacarya, who blessed him, saying he would in time be a great teacher and repudiate all false philosophers. Vedantadeshika married and had a family but lived on alms in order to devote himself fully to his philosophic and literary efforts. He was a prolific writer in both Sanskrit and Tamil; his more than 100 works include commentaries on Vaisnava scriptures; Nyaya-parishuddhi, a comprehensive work on Vishistadvaita logic; Yadavabhyudaya, a poetic work on the life of Krishna; Sankalpa-suryodaya, an allegorical drama; and devotional hymns.

According to Vedantadeshika’s interpretation of prapatti (surrender to the grace of God), some effort is required on the part of the worshiper to secure God’s grace, just as the baby monkey must hold to its mother (the markata-nyaya, or the “analogy of the monkey”). This view–together with ritual and linguistic differences–became the basis for the split between the two subsects, the Vadakalai and the Tengalai, who held that God’s grace is unconditioned and that the human soul is as unassertive as a kitten carried by its mother. (1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica, via Internet)

Bibliografia:

* “Advaita and Visistadvaita” di Srinivasacari

* 1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica, via Internet

vibhuti (vibhuti)

glorious manifestations of the Lord. (Advaita and Visistadvaita, Glossario)

Vidyaranya

• vedi “Madhavacarya”

vikara (vikara)

change. (Advaita and Visistadvaita, Glossario)

vinaa (vinasa)

destruction. (Advaita and Visistadvaita, Glossario)

viaya (visaya)

l’argomento

Madukyopanisad (con Karika di Gaudapada e comento di Sankaracarya – BUN SI VI a 14 – pag.4)

vieaNa (visesana)

qualification per proprium. (Advaita and Visistadvaita, Glossario)

vieya (visesya)

substance. (Advaita and Visistadvaita, Glossario)

vii˜advaita (visistadvaita)

• dottrina promossa da Ramanuja

(Sanskrit: Nonduality of the Qualified), one of the principal schools of Vedanta, an orthodox philosophy of India. This school grew out of the Vaisnava (worship of the god Vishnu [Visnu]) devotional movement prominent in South India from the 7th century on. One of the early Brahmans (class of priests) who began to guide the movement was Nathamuni (10th century), head priest of the temple at Shrirangam (in modern Tamil Nadu state). He was succeeded by Yamuna (11th century), who wrote some philosophic treatises but no commentaries.

The most towering figure is his successor, Ramanuja, or Ramanujacarya (master Ramanuja, c. 1050-1137), who wrote commentaries on the Brahma-sutras (the Shribhasya, “Beautiful Commentary”) and on the Bhagavadgita; and a treatise on the Upanisads, the Vedarthasamgraha (“Summary of the Meaning of the Veda”). Ramanuja was the first of the Vedanta thinkers who made the identification of a personal God with the Brahman of the Upanisads and the Vedanta-sutras the cornerstone of his system. As a personal God, Brahman possesses all the good qualities in a perfect degree, and Ramanuja does not tire of mentioning them. He interprets the relationship between the unitary and infinite Brahman and the plural and finite world in a novel way, which, however, has some support in the Upanisads. For him the relation between the infinite and the finite is like that between the soul and the body. Hence nonduality is maintained, while differences can still be stated. Soul and matter are totally dependent on God for their existence, as is the body on the soul.

God has two modes of being, as cause and as product. As cause, he is in his essence qualified only by his perfections; as product, he has as his body the souls and the phenomenal world. There is a pulsating rhythm in these periods of creation and absorption. For Ramanuja, release is not a negative separation from transmigration, or series of rebirths, but, rather, the joy of the contemplation of God. This joy is attained by a life of exclusive devotion (bhakti) to God, singing his praise, performing adulatory acts in temple and private worship, and constantly dwelling on his perfections. God will return his grace, which will assist the devotee in gaining release.

Vishistadvaita flourished after Ramanuja, but a schism developed over the importance of God’s grace. For the southern, Sanskrit-using school, the Vadakalai, God’s grace in gaining release is important, but man himself should make his best efforts. This school is represented by the thinker Venkatanatha, who was known by the honorific name of Vedantadeshika (Teacher of Vedanta). The northern, Tamil-using school, the Tenkalai, holds that God’s grace alone is necessary.

The influence of Vishistadvaita spread far to the north, where it played a role in the devotional renaissance of Vaisnavism, particularly under

the Bengal devotee Caitanya (1485-1533). In southern India the

philosophy itself is still an important intellectual influence. (1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica)

Bibliografia:

“Advaita and Visistadvaita”, di Srinivasa chari

Visnu

Visnu-dharma

trattato in sei capitoli. Aparoksanubhuti, pag. 120 e anche altri, ci sono citazioni.

vitaNda (vitanda)aaa

• forma di discussione tesa a distruggere l’opponente senza alcun interesse a stabilire nulla di positivo

Bibliografia:

“Advaita and Visistadvaita” di Srinivasacari (pag.4)

Sat-sanga n.a, art. di Manonath dasa

vivarta-vada (vivarta-vada)

the thoery that the world is an illusory appearance of Brahman. (Advaita and Visistadvaita, Glossario)

Vivekananda

original name NARENDRANATH DATTA, DATTA also spelled DUTT (b. Jan. 12, 1863, Calcutta–d. July 4, 1902, Calcutta), Hindu spiritual leader and reformer who attempted to combine Indian spirituality with Western material progress, maintaining that the two supplemented and complemented one another. His Absolute was man’s own higher self; to labour for the benefit of mankind was the noblest endeavour.

Born into an upper-middle-class Kayastha family in Bengal,

he was educated at a Western-style university where he was exposed

to Western philosophy, Christianity, and science. Social reform

was given a prominent place in Vivekananda’s thought, and he

joined the Brahmo Samaj (Society of Brahma), dedicated to eliminating

child marriage and illiteracy and determined to spread education

among women and the lower castes. He later became the most notable

disciple of Ramakrishna, who demonstrated the essential unity

of all religions. Always stressing the universal and humanistic

side of the Vedas as well as belief in service rather than dogma,

Vivekananda attempted to infuse vigour into Hindu thought, placing

less emphasis on the prevailing pacifism and presenting Hindu

spirituality to the West. He was an activating force behind

the Vedanta (interpretation of the Upanisads) movement

in the United States and England. In 1893 he appeared in Chicago

as a spokesman for Hinduism at the World’s Parliament of Religions

and so captivated the assembly that a newspaper account described

him as “an orator by divine right and undoubtedly the greatest

figure at the Parliament.” Thereafter he lectured throughout

the United States and England, making converts to the Vedanta

movement.

On his return to India with a small group of Western disciples in 1897, Vivekananda founded the Ramakrishna Mission (q.v.) at the monastery of Belur Math on the Ganges River near Calcutta. Self-perfection and service were his ideals, and the order continued to stress them. He adapted and made relevant to the 20th century the very highest ideals of the Vedantic religion, and although he lived only two years into that century he left the mark of his personality on East

and West alike. (1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica)

vividia (vividisa)

desire to know brahman. (Advaita and Visistadvaita, Glossario)

vritti-jñana (vrtti-jnana)

knowledge of the psychosis

vyavahara (vyavahara)

empirical usage. (Advaita and Visistadvaita, Glossario)

vyavarta (vyavarta)

changing. (Advaita and Visistadvaita, Glossario)

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

VaikuN˜ha-dhama (Vaikuntha-dhama)

• vedi VaikuN˜ha. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

VaikuN˜ha-loka (VaikuN˜ha-loka)

• vedi VaikuN˜ha. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

Vaiampayana (Vaisampayana)

• uno dei discepoli di Vyasa. Narrò il Maha-bhara¬ta in occasione del sacrificio dei serpenti di Janamejaya. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

vaiNava (vaisnava)

• devoto di ViNu o KriNa. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

Vallabha (Vallabha)

• importante Vaisnava del sedicesimo secolo. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

Vamadeva (Vamadeva)

• personaggio della letteratura vedica. E’ menzionato nel Vedanta-sutra. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

Vamana

• detto anche Vamanadeva, è un’importante incarnazione di ViNu che discese sulla Terra sotto forma di un brahmaNa nano. Possie¬de un pianeta nell’universo spirituale. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

Varaha (Varaha)

• incarnazione divina che apparve come un cinghiale. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

varNa (varna)

• ognuna delle quattro divisioni della società conforme¬mente alle funzioni naturali svolte dai cittadini. Queste sono: brahmaNa, katriya, vaiya e udra. L’equilibrio e l’armonia della società dipendono dal rispetto delle norme che governano i varNa. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

Vasudeva (Vasudeva)

• il padre di KriNa. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

Vasudeva (Vasudeva)

• una delle espansioni di KriNa. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

Vasudeva

• uno dei nomi di KriNa che significa “figlio di Va¬sudeva”. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

vatsalya (vatsalya)

• parentela. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

vatsalya-rasa (vatsalya-rasa)

• relazione spirituale in cui il devoto considera il Signore come un membro della propria famiglia (vedi Nanda o Yaoda). (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

Veda (Veda)

• vasta raccolta di libri compilati da Vyasadeva. E’ la cono¬scenza più completa ed esatta che il genere umano abbia mai avu¬to. I testi fondamentali sono quattro: lo Yajus, il ¬g, il Sama e l’Atharva. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

Vedanta (Vedanta)

• one of the six orthodox systems (darshans) of Indian philosophy and the one that forms the basis of most modern schools of Hinduism. The term Vedanta means in Sanskrit the “conclusion” (anta) of the Vedas, the earliest sacred literature of India; it applies to the Upanishads, which were elaborations of the Vedas, and to the school that arose out of the “study” (mimamsa) of the Upanishads. Thus Vedanta is also referred to as Vednta-Mimamsa (“Reflection on Vedanta”), Uttara-Mimamsa (“Reflection on the Latter Part of the Vedas”), and Brahma-Mimamsa (“Reflection on Brahma”). The three fundamental Vedanta texts are: the Upanishads (the most favoured being the longer and older ones such as the Brhadaranyaka, the Chandogya, the Taittiriya, and the Katha); the Brahma-sutras (also called Vedanta-sutras), which are very brief, even one-word interpretations of the doctrine of the Upanishads; and the famous poetic dialogue, the Bhagavadgita (“Song of the Lord”), which, because of its immense popularity, was drawn upon for support of the doctrines found in the Upanishads.

No single interpretation of the texts emerged, and several schools of Vedanta developed, differentiated by their conceptions of the nature of the relationship and the degree of identity between the individual self (atman) and the absolute (brahma). These range from the nondualism (Advaita; q.v.) of the 8th-century philosopher Shankara to the theism (visistadvaita) q.v.) of the 11th-12th- century thinker Ramanuja and the dualism (Dvaita; q.v.) of the 13th-century thinker Madhva.

The Vedanta schools do, however, hold in common a number of beliefs; transmigration of the self (samsara) and the desirability of release from the cycle of rebirths; the authority of the Veda on the means of release; that Brahman is both the material (upadana) and the instrumental (nimitta) cause of the world; and that the self (atman) is the agent of its own acts (karma) and therefore the recipient of the fruits, or consequences, of action (phala). All the Vedanta schools unanimously reject both the heterodox (nastika) philosophies of Buddhism and Jainism and the conclusions of the other orthodox (astika) schools (Nyaya, Vaishesika, Samkhya, Yoga, and, to some extent, the Purva-Mimamsa).

The influence of Vedanta on Indian thought has been profound, so that it may be said that, in one or another of its forms, Hindu philosophy has become Vedanta. Although the preponderance of texts by Advaita scholastics has in the West given rise to the erroneous impression that Vedanta means Advaita, the nondualistic Advaita is but one of many Vedanta schools. (1996 Encyclopaedia Britannica, via Internet, voce Vedanta)

Vedanta-sutra (Vedanta-sutra)

• importante testo filosofico vedico. E’ conside¬rato il commento naturale ai Veda. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

vibhinnama (vibhinnamsa)

• espansioni parziali della potenza di Dio: sono le jiva, le anime spirituali individuali. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

vigraha (vigraha)

• forma. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

vikarma (vikarma)

• azioni che non tengono conto dei consigli delle scritture e pertanto conducono alla degradazione e alla frustra¬zione. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

vira˜a-rupa (virata-rupa)

• la forma universale del Signore, nella quale è possibile vedere contemporaneamente tutto ciò che esiste. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

ViNu (Visnu)

• uno dei nomi di KriNa, significa “sostegno di tutto ciò che esiste”. E’ anche la divinità che predomina il sattva-gu¬na. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

ViNu-avatara (Visnu-avatara)

• manifestazioni divine, incarnazioni di Dio. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

ViNusvami (Visnusvami)

maestro spirituale VaiNava

ViNu-tattva (Visnu-tattva)

• manifestazioni divine, incarnazioni di Dio. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

Vivanatha Cakravarti Thakura (Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura)

• saggio e santo VaiNava. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

Vrindavana (Vrndavana)

• villaggio dell’India (90 miglia a sud-est di Del¬hi, nel distretto di Mathura) dove, circa 5.000 anni fa, KriNa visse e attuò i Suoi divertimenti trascendentali in compagnia dei puri devoti. Vrindavana è anche nel cielo spirituale, e tra le due non vi è differenza. Tale visione è tuttavia possibile solo a colui che si è completamente purificato. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

Vrindavana das Thakur (Vrndavana das Thakur)

• l’autore del Caitanya-bhagavata. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

Vyasa (Vyasa)

• il saggiò che diede ordine e mise per iscritto i Veda. Altri nomi: Vyasadeva, KriNa Dvaipayana, Veda Vyasa, BadarayaNa. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

Vyenka˜a Bhatta (Vyenkata Bhatta)

• devoto vissuto attorno al 1500. Era un importante discepolo di Caitanya e padre di Gopala Bhatta Gosvami. (Glossario “Bhakti-yoga”)

Vacaspatimishra

(970 dc) vg 132

– dette interpretazioni chiamate bhamati degli scritti di shankara

* vacaspatimishra (circa 800) cerca di dimostrare che tutti i sistemi non erano altro che impalcature, tutte della stessa forza e tutti egualmente validi, erette da pensatori di differenti ca¬pacità, epr giungre a un quadro totale della realtà, secondo le attitudini del singolo studente. (vedi vg 63)

vacaspati-mishra: vissuto verso l’800, cercò di dimostra¬re come tutti i vari sistemi non sono affatto sistemi diversi, bensì parte di una medesima impalcatura, che si prefigge lo scopo di reggere il medesimo edificio ideologico, visto da prospettive diverse, e dove tutti hanno la stessa forza e la stessa validità. Questi sistemi sono stati eretti per comunicare un quadro totale della realtà, anche tenendo conto di un elemento importante, e cioè l’attitudine e il diverso grado di capacità del singolo stu¬dente.

* vajra: il fulmine, l’arma preferita di indra

* vajrayana: setta buddhista vedi bu-

* vaikalika bhoga: offerta alle murti che si svolge alle ore 15,40

* vaikuntha: i pianeti spirituali

lett. senza ansietà. il regno spirituale, dove tutto è sac¬cidananda

– vedi glossario di the seventh gosvami, biografia di bhaktivinoda thakur

* vaisampayana: discepolo di vyasa, narrò il maha-bharata al sa¬crificio dei serpenti di Janamejaya

* vaisheshika: per le teorie vedi i-11

vaisheshika di Kanada vaisheshika un darshana: Il termine vaisheshika deriva invece dal sanskrito “vishesha”, che vuol dire “differenza”, e ha lo scopo di stabilire le differenze specifiche che esistono fra tutti gli oggetti che ci capita di incontrare nella realtà, sia in quella esterna che in quella interna. Parti¬colare attenzione viene data all’analisi delle particelle che compongono la natura materiale, e cioè all’atomo. Utilizzando questo metodo di analisi, il vaisheshika mira a raggiungere una soluzione ai problemi dell’esistenza umana, e anche alle numerose questioni metafisiche.

vaishnava

devoto di vishnu o krishna

Vaishnava non dipende dalla casta né da altre cose(cit. Prabhupada Srila Sarasvatai Thakura di Bhaktikusum Sraman, pag.120)

da Hari Bhakti Vilasa, rproprio come il metallo di una campana può essere trasformata …. attraverso iniziazione, così(cit. Prabhupada Srila Sarasvati Thakura di Bhaktikusum Sraman, pag.218).

vedi anche (cit. Prabhupada Srila Sarasvati Thakura di Bhaktikusum Sraman, pag.343).

l’adorazione di Vaishnava è anche superiore a quella di Vishnu (cit. Prabhupada Srila Sarasvatai Thakura di Bhaktikusum Sraman, pag.340)

– vedi glossario di the seventh gosvami, biografia di bhaktivinoda thakur

i tre gradi del devoto: uttama, madhyama e kamnistha (cit. Prabhupada Srila Sarasvati Thakura di Bhaktikusum Sraman, pag.343).

vaishnavismo

La cultura Vaishnava

vaishnavismo ramanuja

vedi v-5 per alcune note.

* vaishya: uno dei quattro varna

agricoltori e commercianti; provvedono alle necessità vitali della società e proteggono gli animali, in particolare la mucca

loro doveri vedi vishnu-purana 235

* valala: il nome che Bhima assunse durante il periodo in inco¬gnito

* valmiki: il saggio che scrisse il Ramayana p73 * vamanadeva:

* vana parva: uno dei capitoli del maha-bharata

* vanaprastha: 1. Terza tappa della vita spirituale; periodo di pellegrinaggio in vari luoghi santi per distaccarsi dalla vita familiare e sociale per prepararsi al sannyasa

2. colui che vive secondo le regole di questo ashrama

vedi vishnu-purana 238

* vanara: il popolo di scimmie che aiutò Rama a ritrovare sita

* vandana, offrire preghiere

* varanavata: la città dove i pandava furono mandati per essere arsi vivi nella loro casa

* varna: ognuna delle quattro divisioni della società secondo le funzioni naturali che vi svolgono i suoi membri

e sono: Brahmana, kshatriya, vaishya e shudra

l’equilibrio e l’armonia nella società dipendono dal rispet¬to delle norme che governano i varna

* varnashrama: istituzione vedica che imposta la struttura so¬ciale nel rispetto delle norme dei vari varna e ashrama.

E’ stato costituito da krishna stesso allo scopo di facili¬tare la purificazione di tutti

* varnashrama-dharma: le regole del varnashrama

* varuna: il Deva dell’oceano

* varuna-astra: l’arma presieduta da varuna; ha come effetto di sprigionare un’enorme quantità d’acqua

* vashistha: un grande saggio

* vasu: otto grandi esseri celesti

* vasubandhu scrisse l’abhidharma-kosha, il fondamento dogmatico del buddhismo hinayana. poi passò al mahayana (vedi von gla¬senapp pag. 59)

– visse circa tra il 280 e 500 dc vg 86

– il più sapiente tra i buddhisti

* vasudeva: il padre di krishna

* vasudeva: 1. uno dei nomi di krishna. significa figlio di va¬sudeva.

2. emanazione plenaria di krishna che sta a vaikuntha

3. livello spirituale di chi comprenmde chi è Dio e come at¬traverso le sue energie egli agisce

* vasugupta: fondò un sistema shivaita, detto “dottrina del ri¬conoscimento in shiva”, che considerava il processo del divenire cosmico come l’oggettivizzazione del pensiero dell’unico assoluto universale

* vasuki: il re dei Naga

* vayu: il Deva del vento

* veda: una vasta raccolta di libri compilati da vyasadeva. E’ la conoscenza più completa ed esatta che il genere umano abbia mai avuto

sono quattro: yajus, rig, sama e atharva

1) lo yajus tratta delle formule necessarie allo svolgimento dei sacrifici

2) il rig degli inni di lode ai numerosi deva e personalità divine

3) il sama delle funzioni liturgiche (sama significa melo¬die)

4) l’atharva degli aspetti tecnici che riguardano i sacrifi¬ci p73 – vedi glossario di the seventh gosvami, biografia di bhaktivinoda thakur

* veda: uno dei discepoli di ayoda-dhaumya vedi v-7

* vedanta: vedi vedanta-sutra

* vedanta-sutra: importante testo filosofico vedico

altri nomi: Brahma-sutra e Catur-lakshani

costituito di 559 (aa) sutra che trattano della verità asso¬luta. E’ la conclusione dei principi vedici

– vedi glossario di the seventh gosvami, biografia di bhaktivinoda thakur

* veda vyasa: vedi vyasa

* vibhishana: l’anziano re di Lanka; era il fratello minore di ravana e kumbhakarna

* vicitravirya: il figlio di shantanu e satyavati. leggi il mb

* vidhamukti: aaa vg 139

* vidhi: prescrizioni

* vidura: un’incarnazione di Dharma, nacque come il fratello mi¬nore di Dritarashtra

vidya

: conoscenza, saggezza

– le quattro vidya sono: yajnavidya, conoscenza del rituale re¬ligioso; mahavidya, conoscenza dell’adorazione dei principi fem¬minili, o tantrici; guhyavidya, conoscenza dei mantra, preghiere mistiche e incantesimi; atmavidya, conoscenza delloo spirito, che è la vera conoscenza

Vidya bhagavatadhi

Vidyapati

celebre poeta indiano; fa una ricerca

* vijaya: uno dei due guardiani dei pianeti vaikuntha maledetti dai kumara

* vijnana: pratica scientifica della conoscenza

* vijnanabhikshu: (1550 circa) filosofo indiano di cui non si sa molto; cercò di interpretare i sei sistemi ortodossi come membra di un’unica dottrina, procedente per gradi. la verità assoluta è fornita dalle scritture originali. La teoria di shankara è da ri¬gettare (vedi von glasenapp pag. 72 e 73)

vikarna: era uno dei pochi figli virtuosi di Dritarashtra

vikartana: è un nome di vivasvan

* vina: strumento musicale a corde. Era usato da Narada per can¬tare le glorie di krishna

* vinda: un principe che combattè dalla parte dei kurava

vipralambha

separazione da un devoto. vedi Prabhupada Srila Sarasvati Thakura, pag. 218)

* virata: il re di matsya che combattè per i pandava

* virata parva: uno dei capitoli del maha-bharata

* virtù: vedi sattva-guna

* vishaya, l’oggetto dell’asserzione; modello mimamsa di analisi filosofica

* vishnu: dalla radice vis, che significa entrare, penetrare, pervadere

– il nome allude al suo entrare nell’universo

1. Nome di krishna, il sostegno di tutto ciò che esiste

2. Nome generico dei diversi purusha-avatara. Uno di questi è la divinità di sattva-guna

– vedi glossario di the seventh gosvami, biografia di bhaktivinoda thakur

* vishnu-avatara: manifestazioni divine, incarnazioni di dio

* vishnu purana: è parlato da parashara a maitreya, è diviso in 6 libri

primo: 22 p73 secondo: 15

terzo: 18

quarto: 24

quinto: 38

sesto: 8

totale: 125

In tutto è composto di 23.000 shloka

* vishnu-smriti: vg 131

* vishnusvami: maestro spirituale vaishnava

* vishnu-tattva: manifestazioni divine, incarnazioni di dio

* vishoka: l’auriga di Bhima

visva: mondo

Vishvakarma: l’architetto dei deva

* vishvamitra: uno dei più grandi saggi, protagonista di imprese sovrumane

* vishvanatha cakravarti thakura: saggio e santo vaishnava

– vedi glossario di the seventh gosvami, biografia di bhaktivinoda thakur

* vishvarupa: la forma universale di krishna. Con questa visione Egli mostra simultaneamente che il creato esiste nel suo corpo infinito

* vishvarupa: saggio (figlio di tvashta) che divenne il guru di indra; poi fu ucciso dal suo stesso discepolo (vedi shrimad-bha¬gavatam)

Visva-vaishnava-raja sabha

Per la sua storia, vedi Prabhupada Srila Sarasvatai Thakura di Bhaktikusum Sraman, da pag.355)

* vishvavasu vedi v-7

* vivarana: commento al brahma-sutra-bhashya di shankara scritto da prakashatma (1100 dc)

* vivasvan: il nome proprio del Deva del sole

vikartana è un nome di vivasvan

* vivimsati: uno dei figli di dritarashtra

* vraja: vedi vrindavana

– vedi glossario di the seventh gosvami, biografia di bhaktivinoda thakur

Vrajamandala

il suo perimetro è di 168 miglia (cit. Prabhupada Srila Sarasvatai Thakura di Bhaktikusum Sraman, pag.386)

La lista e la descrizione dei luoghi santi di Vrajamandala su “Prabhupada Srila Sarasvati Thakur” di Bhaktikusum Sraman (pag. 386)

Vrika

combattè dalla parte dei pandava

Vrikodara

uno dei nomi di Bhima

* vrindavana: altro nome vraja

krishna vi trascorse la sua infanzia

villaggio dell’india dove, circa 5.000 anni fa, krishna ri¬velò i suoi divertimenti trascendentali in compagnia dei puri de¬voti. Non c’è differenza tra questo luogo terreno e goloka vrin¬davana, ma tale visione è possibile solo a colui che si è comple¬tamente purificato

– è a 90 miglia sud-est di delhi nel distretto di mathura

– vedi glossario di the seventh gosvami, biografia di bhaktivinoda thakur

* vrindavana das thakur: l’autore del caitanya-bhagavata

– vedi glossario di the seventh gosvami, biografia di bhaktivinoda thakur

* vrishaparva: antico re degli asura, che poi si dedicò alla realizzazione spirituale

* vrishasena: il figlio di karna

* vrishni: la stirpe in cui krishna apparve

* vritra: un grande asura ucciso da indra

* vyasa: il saggiò che dette ordine e mise per iscritto i veda

appare sempre alla fine di dvapara-yuga p73 generò dritarashtra, pandu e vidura

altri nomi: vyasadeva, krishna dvaipayana, veda vyasa

– lista dei ventotto vyasa già trascorsi in questo manvanta¬ra vedi vishnu purana da pag.219

– dall’inizio del periodo di vaivasvata manu 28 vyasa si sono succeduti, e sono:

1. brahma

2. vaivashvata manu

3. ushana

4. brihaspati

5. savitri

6. yama

7. indra

8. vashishtha

9. sarasvata

10. tridhama

11. trivrisha

12. bharadvaja

13. antariksha

14. vapra

15. trayyaruna (vedi surya-vamsha)

16. dhananjaya

17. kritanjaya

18. rina

19. bharadvaja

20. Gotama

21. uttama (o haryatma)

22. vena (o rajashrava)

23. somashushmapana (o trinavindu)

24. riksha (valmiki, il discendente di bhrigu)

25. shakti (il padre di parashara)

26. parashara

27. jaratkaru

28. krishna dvaipayana

29. ashvatthama (il figlio di drona) sarà il prossimo

* vyasadeva: vedi vyasa

* vyasasana: il seggi dove si siede il maestro spirituale

* vyenkata bhatta: importante santo, discepolo di caitanya. vis¬se attorno al 1500

* vyuha: l’organizzazione strategica degli eserciti

– fluttuazioni (vritti) vg 158

– poteri mistici (vibhuti) vg 160

– vatsyayana: filosofo buddhista vedi vg 60

senza (vina)

vina senza o fuori

– vishesha, differenza

– vaisheshika: i sutra di kanada (più anticoaa) vg 163

– 3 teorie sull’origine del vaisheshika vg 164

– commenti al nyaya-sutra: vatsyayana (quinto secolo)

– commenti al nyaya-sutra: vatsyayana (quinto secolo) p73 – dignaga (il buddhista) confutò la sua opera vg 168

– vriksha: albero

vina (senza)

visarga due punti ( : ) sta per una s o r finali

3. la formazione della base verbale in parte dipende dal raf¬forzamento della vocale radicale (la vocale della radice). Le vo¬cali semplici sono soggette a un duplice rafforzamento: il primo grado è chiamato guna, il secondo vriddhi.

a a i i u u ri ri lri

guna a e o ar al

vriddhi a ai au ar al

vana (foresta) – neutro

n vanam vane vanani

a vanam vane vanani

s vanena vanabhyam vanai:

d vanaya vanabhyam vanebhya:

ab vanat vanabhyam vanebhya:

g vanasya vanayo: vananam

l vane vanayo: vaneshu

v vana vane vanani

vina senza o fuori

vad, vadati parlare

vana sostantivo decl in a foresta

vana (foresta) – neutro

n vanam vane vanani

a vanam vane vanani

s vanena vanabhyam vanai:

d vanaya vanabhyam vanebhya:

ab vanat vanabhyam vanebhya:

g vanasya vanayo: vananam

l vane vanayo: vaneshu

v vana vane vanani

vap, vapati seminare

vas, vasati dimorare, vivere in un luogo

vah, vahati portare, scorrere

vid, vindati trovare 6 irreg

vira: eroe

vina senza o fuori

vish, vishyati 6 entrare

vraj, vrajati andare

vyadh, vidyati trafiggere 4 irreg

3) conoscenza inadeguata, in quanto fittizia (vikalpa)

libertà dalle passioni (vairagya)

– il termine vaisheshika deriva da “vishesha” (differenza); esso stabilisce le differenze specifiche fra tutti gli oggetti che ci viene da incontrare nel mondo esterno e in quello interno, cerca di raggiungere in tal modo una soluzione dei problemi metafisici

– i seguaci si chiamarono vaisheshika

– vaisheshika, filosofia della natura a base atomistica

(vaisheshika-sutra, kanada) p73

vriksha: albero

– commenti al nyaya-sutra: vatsyayana (pakshilasvamin) (quinto secolo) vg 168

– vyapti “abbracciamento” termine nyaya vedi vg 169

* vajrayana: vg64, 67, 242, 289

– testi nyaya-vaisheshika:

1. la Saptapadarthi di Shivaditya (XI secolo), il libro delle sette categorie (alle sei dell’antico vaisheshikha viene aggiunta come settima il non en essessessessessere),

2. i Tarkabhasha di Keshavamishra (XII secolo);

3. il Tarkasangraha di Annambhatta, XvI secolo

4. la Tarkakaumudi di Laugakshi Bhaskara XvI secolo

5. e la Karikali (Bhashapariccheda) di vishvanatha, XvI secolo

5. particolarità (vishesha), vg 171

l’albero cade nel lago vrksho hrade patati

* vinaya: modestia

culto tantrico vamacar e adoravano le panch-makar (le cinque let¬tere o forme)

Il più Grande, vibhum: per tutte queste ragioni, egli è l’en¬tità più grande che esista.

* viveka: discriminazione

3. la formazione della base verbale in parte dipende dal raf¬forzamento della vocale radicale (la vocale della radice). Le vo¬cali semplici sono soggette a un duplice rafforzamento: il primo grado è chiamato guna, il secondo vriddhi.

* vad, vadati: parlare 1 coniug

* vap, vapati: seminare, piantare 4 1 coniug

* vas, vasati: abitare 1 coniug

* vah, vahati: portare, fluire, scorrere 1 coniug

* vraj, vrajati: andare 4 1 coniug

– i sarvastivadin furono chiamati anche vaibhashika

* vaishnava: devoto di vishnu

– vishuddha-sattva (nitya-vibhuti) energia spirituale

d) vallabha (1479-1531)

– nato a benares da genitori telugu, trascorre la maggior parte della sua vita nei dintorni di mathura

– fondatore di un movimento di devoti di krishna

– scrisse commenti ai brahma-sutra e al bhagavata-purana; il tat¬tvadipanibandha e molto altro

– la sua scuola lanciò una forte attività letteraria, tanto in sanskrito, in hindi e in gujarati

– secondo un’antica tradizione, quella di vallabha proviene da un maestro precedente, vishnusvami (13 sec aa); erano così simili che i due movimenti si fusero in uno p73 – il vedanta di vallabha si chiama shuddhadvaita-mata, puro moni¬smo, perchè affermò che brahma non è mai toccato da maya

– anche secondo vallabha krishna è la suprema personalità di dio

– il mondo materiale è una trasformazione di dio

– dio si manifesta in tre forme: brahman, paramatma e bhagavan

– maryada: regole e precetti e pushti (grazia salvatrice)

– non è necessario rinunciare a tutto, bensì si deve mettere tut¬to al servizio di krishna

– la più alta beatitudine è la liberazione a goloka

– secondo un’antica tradizione, quella di vallabha proviene da un maestro precedente, vishnusvami (13 sec aa); erano così simili che i due movimenti si fusero in uno

secondo un’antica tradizione, quella di vallabha proviene da un maestro precedente, vishnusvami (13 sec aa); erano così simili che i due movimenti si fusero in uno

– il fondatore fu vasugupta (9 sec dc a) al quale shiva avrebbe rivelato la conoscenza, la quale era antichissima ma che era ca¬duta nell’oblio; shiva gli fece trovare una pietra sull’himalaya dove c’erano scritti gli shiva-sutra

* vijnanakala: anime liberate dagli organi attraverso la cono¬scenza

i vira-shaiva, adoratori di shiva indomiti, detti anche lingayat (coloro che recano il linga)

* vasava: vedi basava

– sostengono il monismo differenziato (visheshadvaita), nella quale shiva è l’ente supremo

– la dottrina relativa ai dharma fu scritta nell’abhidharma-kosha da vasubandhu

– pudgala, personalità, è una serie di elementi particolari sepa¬rati e in cooperazione tra di loro, come un corteo di formiche

– la scuola vatsiputriya (o sammitiya) rifiuta la teoria del pud¬gala e dice che la spiegazione non è accettabile; ma un quid in¬definibile

– tale teoria era giustificabile con l’intenzione di proporre dei buddha sovrannaturali che sopravvivessero anche dopo il nirvana

– i pudgala-vadin, dunque sostenevano che l’individualità, in qualche modo, esisteva e furono aspramente avversati ortodossi

vg 224

vipashyana (comprensione) buddh

* vaisampayana: discepolo di vyasa, narrò il Maha-bharata duran¬te il sacrificio dei serpenti di Janamejaya

* vaishya: una delle quattro divisioni sociali quella dei com¬mercianti e dei proprietari terrieri

* valala: il nome che Bhima assunse durante il periodo in inco¬gnito

* valmiki: il saggio che scrisse il Ramayana

* vana Parva: uno dei capitoli del Maha-bharata

* vanara: il popolo di scimmie che aiutò Rama a ritrovare Sita

* varanavata: la città dove i Pandava furono mandati per essere arsi vivi nella loro casa

* varuna: il deva dell’oceano p73 * varuna-astra: l’arma presieduta da varuna; come effetto spri¬giona un’enorme quantità d’acqua

* vasishtha: un grande saggio

* vasu: otto importanti esseri celesti

* vasudeva: il padre di Krishna

* vasuki: il re dei naga

* vayu: il deva del vento

* veda: una vasta raccolta di libri compilati da vyasadeva; è la conoscenza più completa ed esatta che il genere umano abbia mai avuto

* vibhishana: l’anziano re di Lanka; era il fratello minore di Ravana e Kumbhakarna

* vicitravirya: il figlio di Shantanu e Satyavati

* vidura: una delle incarnazione di Dharma; nacque come fratello minore di Dritarashtra

* vijaya: uno dei due guardiani dei pianeti vaikuntha maledetti dai Kumara a nascere tre volte come demoni in questo mondo mate¬riale

* vikarna: era uno dei pochi figli virtuosi di Dritarashtra

* vinata: una delle mogli di Kashyapa; da lei nacque Garuda e Aruna

* vinda: un principe che combattè dalla parte dei Kurava

* virata: il re di Matsya che combattè per i Pandava

* virata Parva: uno dei capitoli del Maha-bharata

* vishnu: uno delle espansioni di Krishna; significa “sostegno di tutto ciò che esiste”; attraverso di lui gli universi materia¬li sono manifestati

* vishoka: l’auriga di Bhima

* vishvakarma: l’architetto dei deva

* vishvamitra: uno dei saggi più grandi; fu protagonista di im¬prese sovrumane

* vishvarupa: divenuto il guru di Indra, fu poi ucciso dal suo stesso discepolo

* vivashvan: il nome proprio del deva del sole

* vivimsati: uno dei figli di Dritarashtra

* vraja: vedi vrindavana

* vrika: combattè dalla parte dei Pandava

* vrikodara: uno dei nomi di Bhima

* vrindavana: villaggio dell’India dove, circa 5.000 anni fa, Krishna rivelò i suoi divertimenti trascendentali in compagnia dei puri devoti; non c’è differenza tra questo luogo terreno e Goloka vrindavana, ma tale visione è possibile solo per colui che è completamente purificato

* vrishaparva: antico re degli asura che poi si dedicò alla pra¬tica dello yoga

* vrishasena: uno dei figli di Karna

* vrishni: la stirpe in cui Krishna apparve

* vritra: un grande asura ucciso da Indra

* vyasa: il saggiò che dette ordine e mise per iscritto i veda; fu il padre di Dritarashtra, Pandu e vidura; suoi altri nomi: vyasadeva, Krishna Dvaipayana, veda-vyasa

* vyuha: l’organizzazione strategica degli eserciti

p73 – i sarvastivadin furono chiamati anche vaibhashika proprio per quel grande commento scritto (jnana-prasthana)

– viveka, conoscenza discriminativa

La parola vaishvanara si può scomporre in questa maniera: nara significa “il capo” e vishva “di tutti”. Dunque uno dei signifi¬cati possibili della parola vaishvanara è l’Essere Supremo.

vaishvanara è un termine abbastanza comune (sadharana) nella letteratura vedica e i significficati possono essere molti; ma il principale è sicuramente “colui dentro il quale tutti gli uomini sono contenuti”. O anche “colui che diventa il fuoco gastrico che permette la digestione a tutti gli esseri”.

E sicuramente indica vishnu.

* japa: la presentazione di una evidenza è chiamata japa

– il tentativo di sconfiggersi l’un l’altro è chiamato vitanda

– la conclusione finale è chiamata vada

* vairagya: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – ashram vi¬dya

* vaisheshika: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – ashram vidya

* vaishvanara: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – ashram vidya

* vaishya: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – ashram vi¬dya

* vanaprastha: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – ashram vidya

* varna: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – ashram vidya

* vasana: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – ashram vidya

* veda: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – ashram vidya

* vedanta: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – ashram vi¬dya

* vedanta-sutra: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – a¬shram vidya

* videha-mukti: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – ashram vidya

* vidya: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – ashram vidya

* vijnana: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – ashram vi¬dya

* vijnanamaya-kosha: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – ashram vidya

* vikalpa: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – ashram vi¬dya

* vikshepa-shakti: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – a¬shram vidya

* virat: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – ashram vidya

* vishesha: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – ashram vi¬dya

* vishnu: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – ashram vidya

* vishva: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – ashram vidya

* viveka: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – ashram vidya

* viveka-cudamani: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – a¬shram vidya p73 * vritti: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – ashram vidya

* vyasa: vedi “aparokshanubhuti”, di shankara – ashram vidya

Vivasvan: suoi

da Samjna: Yama, Yami e Shraddhadeva

da Chaya: Shanaishcara, Savarni e Tapati (figlia)

da vadava: gli Ashvini-kumara

vacaspati Mishra: vissuto verso l’800, cercò di dimostrare come tutti le varie dottrine non sono affatto sistemi diversi, bensì parte di una medesima impalcatura

vadakalai: movimento Ramanuja che dava enfasi alla partecipazione attiva del discepolo al fine di ottenere la liberazione

vaidhi-bhakti: la devozione caratterizzata dallo spirito di sot¬tomissione. Dà particolare importanza alle molte regole del vai¬shnavismo

vaikuntha: i pianeti spirituali

vaisheshika: sistema filosofico che ha lo scopo di stabilire le differenze specifiche che esistono fra tutti gli oggetti che ci capita di incontrare nella realtà, sia in quella esterna che in quella interna. Particolare attenzione viene data all’analisi delle particelle che compongono la natura materiale, e cioè all’atomo

vaisheshika-sutra: il testo di base del vaisheshika

vaishnava: il devoto di vishnu, o Krishna

vaishnavismo: la dottrina che riconosce vishnu o Krishna come l’Essere Supremo

vaishya: classe sociale degli agricoltori e dei commercianti; provvedono alle necessità vitali della società e proteggono gli animali, in particolare la mucca

vallabha: grande erudito e devoto di Krishna. Fonda un movimento vaishnava ancora attivo

vanaprastha: terza tappa della vita spirituale. Periodo di pelle¬grinaggi nei vari luoghi santi per distaccarsi dalla vita fami¬liare e sociale e prepararsi al sannyasa

varanasi: antico nome dell’attuale Benares

vardhamana: vedi Mahavira

varna: le quattro divisioni della società secondo le funzioni na¬turali che vi svolgono i suoi membri. Sono i brahmana, gli ksha¬triya, i vaishya e i shudra

vasubandhu: filosofo buddhista. Scrisse l’Abhidharma-kosha, il fondamento teorico del buddhismo hinayana. Poi, grazie all’opera di convincimento del fratello Asanga, passò al mahayana

vasudeva: lo stato della pura virtù, della totale purificazione

vasugupta: maestro shivaita che fondò la cosiddetta “Dottrina del Riconoscimento in Shiva”. vedi trika

veda: una vasta raccolta di libri compilati da vyasadeva. E’ la conoscenza più completa ed esatta che il genere umano abbia mai avuto

vedanta: commento filosofico dei veda. E’ uno dei sei darshana p73

vedanta-sutra: importante testo filosofico. E’ la conclusione dei principi vedici

vibhuti: i poteri che si sviluppano grazie alla pratica dello yo¬ga

videha: regione dell’India

vidhi: le prescrizioni, le regole del ciò che deve essere fatto

vijnanabhikshu: maestro che dimostrò l’unità di intenti dei sei sistemi classici

vijnana-vada: dottrina buddhista, che propone l’esistenza della sola coscienza

vijnana-citta: la coscienza

vikramashila: città dell’India

vira-shaiva: movimento di devoti di Shiva

vishaya: l’oggetto di una affermazione, momento nel quale viene definito ciò di cui si sta trattando

vishesha: qualità

vishnu: uno dei nomi di Krishna, che significa “il sostegno di tutto ciò che esiste”

vishnu-bhakti: la dottrina della devozione a vishnu

vishnu Purana: una delle 18 Purana

vishnusvami: puro devoto vaishnava. Era un discendente spirituale della Rudra-sampradaya e scrisse un famoso commento al vedanta- sutra chiamato Sarvajna-bhashya

vivarta: teoria per cui la molteplicità è vista come un “vivarta”, ovverosia una manifestazione apparente di un essere perennemente immutabile.

vivarta-vada: la dottrina che sostiene l’immutabilità dell’Essere Supremo

vivashvan: il deva del sole

vivekananda: un discepolo di Ramakrishna

vrindavana: il villaggio dell’india dove, circa 5.000 anni fa, Krishna rivelò i suoi divertimenti trascendentali

vyasadeva: il saggio protagonista di molti dei più importanti mo¬menti della sua epoca. Mise per iscritto tutti i veda

* vaikuntha: i pianeti spirituali

* vaikuntha-dhama: vedi vaikuntha

* vaikuntha-loka: vedi vaikuntha

* vaisampayana: uno dei discepoli di vyasa. Narrò il Maha-bhara¬ta in occasione del sacrificio dei serpenti di Janamejaya

* vaishnava: devoto di vishnu o Krishna

* vallabha: importante vaishnava del sedicesimo secolo

* vamadeva: personaggio della letteratura vedica. E’ menzionato nel vedanta-sutra

* vamana: detto anche vamanadeva, è un’importante incarnazione di vishnu che discese sulla Terra sotto forma di un nano. Possie¬de un pianeta nell’universo spirituale

* varaha: incarnazione divina che apparve come un cinghiale

* varna: ognuna delle quattro divisioni della società conforme¬mente alle funzioni naturali svolte dai cittadini. Queste sono: brahmana, kshatriya, vaishya e shudra. L’equilibrio e l’armonia della società dipendono dal rispetto delle norme che governano i varna

* vasudeva: uno dei nomi di Krishna che significa “figlio di vasudeva”

* vasudeva: il padre di Krishna

* vasudeva: una delle espansioni di Krishna

* vatsalya: parentela

* vatsalya-rasa: relazione spirituale in cui il devoto considera il Signore come un membro della propria famiglia (vedi Nanda o Yashoda)

* veda: vasta raccolta di libri compilati da vyasa. E’ la cono¬scenza più completa ed esatta che il genere umano abbia mai avu¬to. I testi fondamentali sono quattro: lo Yajus, il Rig, il Sama e l’Atharva

* vedanta-sutra: importante testo filosofico vedico. E’ conside¬rato il commento naturale ai veda

* vibhinnamsha: espansioni parziali della potenza di Dio: sono le jiva, le anime spirituali individuali

* vigraha: forma

* vikarma: azioni che non tengono conto dei consigli delle scritture e pertanto conducono alla degradazione e alla frustra¬zione

* virata-rupa: la forma universale del Signore, nella quale è possibile vedere contemporaneamente tutto ciò che esiste

* vishnu: uno dei nomi di Krishna, significa “sostegno di tutto ciò che esiste”. E’ anche la divinità che predomina il sattva-gu¬na

* vishnu-avatara: manifestazioni divine, incarnazioni di Dio

* vishnusvami: maestro spirituale vaishnava

* vishnu-tattva: manifestazioni divine, incarnazioni di Dio

* vishvanatha Cakravarti Thakura: saggio e santo vaishnava

* vrindavana: villaggio dell’India (90 miglia a sud-est di Del¬hi, nel distretto di Mathura) dove, circa 5.000 anni fa, Krishna visse e attuò i Suoi divertimenti trascendentali in compagnia dei puri devoti.

vrindavana è anche nel cielo spirituale, e tra le due non vi è differenza. Tale visione è tuttavia possibile solo a colui che si è completamente purificato

* vrindavana das Thakur: l’autore del Caitanya-bhagavata

* vyasa: il saggiò che diede ordine e mise per iscritto i veda. Altri nomi: vyasadeva, Krishna Dvaipayana, veda vyasa, Badarayana

* vyenkata bhatta: importante devoto vissuto attorno al 1500. Era un importante discepolo di Caitanya

Varsabhanavi

Srimati Radharani

Vartmapradarsaka

il primo che mostra il sentiero spirituale

Vrisabhanunandini

Srimati Radharani

va.nda = Worship

va.nde = (Vr. Pr.I. P.Sing.AP)bow; salute

va.nsha = family

va.nshahina = without family

vaH = your

vaktaram.h = the man who speaks or utters

vaktuM = to say

vaktR^i = orator

vaktra = the mouth

vaktraM = face

vaktraNi = the mouths

vakra = Retrograde

vakragati = not straight

vakratuNDaya = to one who has crooked limb or part(the twised broken tusk)

vakra = (adj) curved, crooked

vakrasana = the curved posture

vaN^ga = Bengal

vachaH = words

vachana = talk

vachanaM = word

vachane = (loc.sing) in words or speech

vachasa = with words

vachmi = vachAmi or shall speak

vajra = one of the channels in the spine, a thunderbolt, diamond

vajra-maNi = diamond

vajraM = the thunderbolt

vajram.h = (n) diamond

vajrasana = the thunderbolt posture

vajroli = the thunderbolt contraction

vaTavR^ikshaH = (m) a banyan tree

vatsya = reside

vad.h = to talk

vada = please tell

vada.nti = (Vr.Pr.IIP.pl.PP) tell; speak

vadati = (1 pp) to speak

vadana = face

vadanam.h = (n) mouth

vadanaiH = by the mouths

vadanti = say

vadasi = You tell

vadishhyanti = will say

vadyapaksha = Dark half of the lunar month

vadhu = (f) bride

vana = forest

vanaM = forest

vanachara = animal

vanaspatishastram.h = botany

vantaH = subject to

vand.h = to bow down

vanda = Worship

vandate = (1 ap) to salute

vandita = praised, saluted

vande = worship

vanhiH = fire

vapati = (1 pp) to sow

vapuH = body

vamati = (1 pp) to vomit

vaya = age

vayaM = we

vayasi = of age

vayasigate = vayasi+gate, when age has advanced/gone

vara = Groom

varaM = better

varaH = better

varada = the one granting boons

varadaM = that which gives boons

varadamurtaye = to the personified boongiver

varan.h = (masc.Acc.Pl.) boons; bridegrooms

varanane = Oh! lady having the best face!

varaha = the boar

varahaH = (m) pig, boar

varishhTham.h = the foremost

varuNaH = the demigod controlling the water

varga = Divisional or Harmonic Charts

vargamula = square root

vargottama = Same sign in nava.nsha as in Bhavi usually increasing power for good or bad

varjayet.h = (verb II P.sing.PP) should be avoided ; given up

varjitaH = are devoid of

varNa = color

varNaM = colors

varNayaM = do we describe

varNasaN^kara = of unwanted children

varNasaN^karaH = unwanted progeny

varNadi.n = the letter groups or caste groups

vartate = (1 ap) to exist, to be

vartana = Behavior

vartante = are being engaged

vartamana = Present

vartamanaH = being situated

vartamanani = present

vartaya = to operate (causal from vart.h)

vartin.h = one who lives / behaves

varte = I am engaged

varteta = remains

varteyaM = thus engage

vartma = path

vartmani = on the path

vardhate = (1 ap) to grow, to increase

vardhana = Who prospers

vardhamanakaH = (m) special containers used to store pickles

varsha = Year

varshaphala = Annual results. Method of Progression using Solar Returns

varshh.h = to pour

varshha = year

varshhaM = rain

varshhatu = (Vr.Imp.IIP S)let it rain

varshha = monsoon

valakhilya = a class of tiny entities, about the size of a thumb

valaya = circle

valayam.h = (n) bangle

valli = (fem) creeper

vasha = Agree

vashaM = control

vashaH = (Nom.Pl.) (are under) control or influence

vashat.h = under obligation

vashi = one who is controlled

vashi+kR^i = to conquer, overcome

vashe = in full subjugation

vashya = under control

vas.h = to live

vasat.h = one who lives

vasati = (1 pp) to stay, dwell

vasana = dwelling

vasanta = the deity of Spring, also Spring itself

vasantau = (and) Spring season

vasavaH = the Vasus

vasanaM = having worn

vasudha = earth

vasudhaiva = vasudhA(fem.nom.sing.)earth;world + eva:alone;itself

vasun.h = the eight Vasus

vasundhara = (f) earth

vasaunaM = of the Vasus

vasti = internal cleansing

vastu = Article

vastuni = objects

vastra = Garment

vahati = (1 pp) to carry

vahamyahaM = vahAmi + ahaM:bear or carry + I

vaha = Porter

vahami = carry

vahni = fire

vahniH = fire ( for worship)

vahnikaNa = spark

vaksha = chest

vakshaHsthalam.h = (n) breasts, chest

vakshoja = breasts

vakshyami = shall explain

va = or

va.ngmaya = full of speech

va.nchh.h = to want

va.nchha = (fem) desire

vak.h = language/speech

vakya = sentence

vakyaM = words

vakyani = sentences

vakyena = words

vagmi = master of speech

vaN^mayaM = of the voice

vaN^mayaH = full of the `word’ i.e. master of the word \ language

vachaM = words

vachaH = the Vedas

vacha = speech

vachala = capable of talking

vachyaM = to be spoken

vaJNchhasi = you desire

vaJNchhita = desired

vaNijyaM = trade

vaNi = language

vaNiM = speech

vata = (masc) wind

vataya = blow (like a winda)

vataTaH = (m) kite

vatatmajaM = the son of the wind-god (`vAta’ or `vAyu)

vatayana = a horse

vatayanaM = window

vatayanasana = the horseface posture

vatavaraNam.h = (n) environment, also used to mean weather

vada = argument

vadaH = the natural conclusion

vadayati = to play (a musical instrument)

vadan.h = fabricated words

vadinaH = the advocates

vadini = she who speaks

vanara = monkey

vanarayuthamukhyam.h = the chieftain of the monkey brigade

vapi = at all

vama = left side

vamadevasana = Vamadeva’s posture

vamana = Vishnu’s fifth incarnation also known as trivikrama

vamaprakasha = lovely shiningness

vama.nkaruDha = having the left side of the body climbed, occupied by

vame = left side

vayu = wind

vayuH = the vital airs

vayoH = of the wind

vayau = air(life-breath)

vara = Day

varaM = and again

varadhipati = Ruler of the Day

vari = water

vari-dhara = water-carrier(cloud )

variNi = the one who prevents

varida = cloud (one who gives water)

varivaha = (m) cloud

varta = news

vartaM = word (here enquiry/inquiry)

varshhNeya = O descendant of VRishhNi

valmikikokilam.h = the vAlmIki-cuckoo

vasaH = living

vasana = longings, craving

vasara = Day

vasava = indra

vasavaH = the heavenly king

vasas.h = apparel / clothes

vasa.nsi = garments

vasita = made fragrant

vasukiH = Vasuki

vasuki = a name of Shesha

vasudevaH = the Personality of Godhead, KRishhNa

vasudevasya = of KRishhNa

vasudevaH = KRishhNa

vaso = cloth, dress

vastushastra = study of architecture

vahana = vehicle

vahanakaraka = Significator of vehicles which is Venus

vi+apa+gam.h = to go away

vi+chint.h = think

vi+bha = to adorn

vi+smR^i = to forget

vi+GYa = to know

vi.ndati = enjoys

vi.nsha.nsha = A Varga. The harmonic twentieth division. Used for delineating Religious fervour and accrued spiritual merit

vi.nshottari = The most popular Dasha method in use today

vi.nshopaka = A method of calculating planetary strength using the Vargas

vikampituM = to hesitate

vikarNaH = Vikarna

vikarmaNaH = of forbidden work

vikala = disabled

vikalaM = not related or joined

vikalpa = imagination, fancy

vikaraM = appearance (generally, grotesque/ugly)

vikaran.h = transformations

vikari = changes

vikirati = to cast a net

vikirNa = scattered

vikR^i = modify, alter

vikR^ita = Ugly

vikR^itavaha = Ugly porter

vikrantaH = mighty

vikriNite = to sell

vikrtacharaNi = adj. mentally disturbed behaviour

vikhyata = famous

vigata = having discarded

vigataH = is removed

vigatajvaraH = without being lethargic

vigatabhiH = devoid of fear

vigataspR^ihaH = without being interested

viguNaH = even faulty

vigraha = attack

vigrahasandhau = for war(dissension) or peace-making

vighati = Equivalent to 24 seconds of clock time

vighna = calamity

vighnanashine = to the destroyer of all obstacles

vighnaiH = difficulties, obstacles

vichar.h = to think

vichakshaNa = clever, wise

vichakshaNaH = the experienced

vichara = thought

vicharaM = thought

vichalayet.h = should try to agitate

vichalyate = becomes shaken

vichitra = foolish, extraordinary, strange

vichitraH = wonderful/mysterious

vichintaya = think well

vichintya = having thought

vichetasaH = bewildered

vijayaM = victory

vijayaH = victory

vijayate = is victorious

vijayi = victorious man

vijanataH = who is in complete knowledge

vijanitaH = are in knowledge

vijaniyaM = shall I understand

vijitatma = self-controlled

vijitendriyaH = sensually controlled

vitataH = are spread

vitarati = to distribute

vitarka = discernment

vitR^i = to distribute

vitR^ishhNaM = desirelessness

vitta = money

vittaM = wealth

vittakoshhaH = (m) bank

vitte = wealth

vitteshaH = the lord of the treasury of the demigods

vid.h = to obtain

vidaH = who understand

vidadhami = give

vidarayati = to split apart

vidahinaH = burning

viditam.h = known

viditatmanaM = of those who are self-realized

viditva = having known/realised

vidishaM = non-direction

viduH = understood

vidushhakaH = (m) clown, joker

videsha = foreign land

viddhi = know for sure

vidmaH = do we know

vidmahe = a

vidyate = there is

vidyanipuNai = by the ace scholar Shankara (Plural is used for reverance)

vidyaya = (fem.instr.sing.) by knowledge

vidya = knowledge

vidyat.h = you must know

vidyaturanaM = (poss.pl.) of people who are indulging in knowledge

vidyanaM = of all education

vidyanidhiH = the stock-pile of knowledge (here rAma)

vidyamahaM = shall I know

vidyarthini = (f) student

vidyarthi = (m) student

vidyalayaH = (m) school

vidyavan.h = a knowledgeable manor scholar

vidyut.hkandaH = (m) incandescent bulb

vidvat.h = scholar

vidvattva = scholarliness

vidvan.h = learned

vidvishhavahai = may us not quarrel or hate

vidhatR^i = the creator

vidhana = placing

vidhanoktaH = according to scriptural regulation

vidhi = ritual

vidhidishhTaH = according to the direction of scripture

vidhihinaM = without scriptural direction

vidhiyate = does take place

vidhuta = moving

vidhema = make

vidheyatma = one who follows regulated freedom

vina = without

vinaN^kshyasi = you will be lost

vinadya = vibrating

vinaya = humility

vinayi = man with humility

vinashayasi = you destroy

vinashyati = falls back

vinashyatsu = in the destructible

vina = without

vinasha = total destruction

vinashaM = destruction

vinashaH = destruction

vinashaya = for the annihilation

vinigrahaH = control

viniyataM = particularly disciplined

viniyamya = regulating

viniyogaH = distribution (of various limbs, postures)

vinirmuktaH = liberated

vinivartante = are practiced to be refrained from

vinivR^itta = disassociated

vinishchitaiH = certain

viniha.nsi = you kill

vinoda = humor

vinodaya = divert/recreate(be happy)

vindati = (6 pp) to find

vindate = enjoys

vindami = I have

vipatti = calamity

viparivartate = is working

viparita = inverted, contrary to rule, wrong

viparitaM = the opposite

viparitakaraNi = the upside-down posture

viparitan.h = in the wrong direction

viparitani = just the opposite

viparyaya = inversion

viparyayeNa.api = by changing also

viparyaya = a mistaken view

vipashchit.h = (m) a learned man, scholar

vipashchitaH = full of discriminating knowledge

vipaksha = of the opposite side

vipaka = the distressing results of karmas

vipula = ample

vipulaM = more than enough, plenty

vipratipanna = adj. perplexed

vipratipanna = without being influenced by the fruitive results

viprapriyaM = the loved of the Brahmins

vipraH = (masc.nom.Pl.)Brahmins

viphalaH = not good fruitless

vibhaktaM = divided

vibhakteshhu = in the numberless divided

vibhagayoH = differences

vibhagashaH = in terms of division

vibhavasau = in the fire

vibhuM = greatest

vibhuH = the Supreme Lord

vibhum.h = the Lord who shines

vibhutayaH = opulences

vibhuti = divine power

vibhutiM = opulence

vibhutinaM = opulences

vibhutibhiH = opulences

vibhuteH = of opulences

vibhush.h = to decorate

vibhushhaNa = ornament, asset

vibhramaH = bewilderment

vibhrashhTaH = deviated from

vibhrantaH = perplexed

vimatsaraH = free from envy

Vimana

vimanam.h = (n) an aircraft, plane

The word Vimana comprises of Vi, “the sky” and Mana, meaning, “measure”. Vimana is one that measures the sky as it traverses through it.

see article called
Pushpaka Vimana of Ravana

Vimukta
H = liberated

vimuktanaM = of those who are liberated

vimuktaiH = by one who has become free from

vimuchya = being delivered from

vimuJNchati = one gives up

vimuhyati = one is bewildered

vimuDha = foolish

vimuDhaH = bewildered

vimuDhabhavaH = bewilderment

vimuDhaH = foolish persons

vimuDhan.h = perfectly befooled

vimR^ishya = deliberating

vimochana = freedom

vimohayati = bewilders

vimohitaH = deluded

vimokshaNat.h = giving up

vimokshaya = meant for liberation

vimokshyase = you will be liberated

viyogaM = extermination

virakta = uninerested

virachita = created

virachitaM = created, composed

virala = rare

viraha = separation

virahitaM = without

viragaH = Non-attachment/desirelessness

viraTaH = Virata

viram.h = to stop

virama = stop

viramaH = respite, full stop

virochana = a demon prince

virodha = opposition

vilagnaH = becoming attached

vilayamaM = extinct

vilepana = smearing

vilokayataM = of those who are seeing

vilokya = on seeing

viloma = against the natural order of things

vivarjita = without/ having abandoned

vivarjitaM = devoid of

vivardhanaH = increasing

vivasvataH = of the sun-god

vivasvate = unto the sun-god

vivasvan.h = Vivasvan (the sun-god’s name)

vivaksha = choice

vivaha = Wedding

vivahaM = marriage

vivikta = to solitary

viviktasevi = living in a secluded place

vividha = varied

vividhaH = various

vividhaH = various

vividhaiH = various

vivR^iNute = (Vr. Pr.II Per.S.AP)chooses

vivR^iddhaM = increased

vivR^iddhe = when developed

viveka = discrimination

vivekin.h = one who is thoughtful and just

vishate = he enters

vishanti = enter

vishama\-vR^itti = uneven or strained movement whilst breathing

vishaM = and the vaisyas

vishakha = Sixteenth nakshatra

vishala = very great

vishalaM = vast

vishalakshau = (two)persons with (lotus-like)large eyes

vishishhTaH = especially powerful

vishishhyate = is by far the better

vishuddha = pure

vishuddhaya = fully purified

vishuddhaye = for clarifying

vishuddhatma = a purified soul

visheshha = particular

visheshhataH = especialy

visheshhasaN^ghan.h = specifically assembled

visheshhaGYa = the knowledgeable or wise person

vishyati = (4 pp) to pierce

vishleshha = lonely (antonym of ashleshha which is embrace)

vishvaM = the universe

vishvataH = from all around the world

vishvatomukhaM = and in the universal form

vishvatomukhaH = Brahma

vishvamaryaM = vishvaM:Universe and AryaM: (acc.sing.):noble person

vishvamurte = O universal form

vishvarupa = in the form of the universe

vishvavedaH = one who has understood the world(vishva)

vishvasya = universe

vishvamitra = vishvAmitra’s

vishvasa = faith

vishvasabhumi = trustworthy

vishve = the Visvedevas

vishveshvara = O Lord of the universe

vishha = poison

vishhama = odd (as in odd or even)

vishhamiva = like poison

vishhame = in this hour of crisis

vishhaya = kingdom (here)

vishhayaH = on the subject matter

vishhayan.h = sense objects

vishhaye = in topics, in subjects

vishhaNa = horns

vishhadaM = moroseness

vishhadi = morose

vishhidan.h = while lamenting

vishhidantaM = lamenting

vishhuspR^isha = touched, tinged with poison (poison-tipped arrowa)

vishheshhata = difference

vishhopameyaM = poison-like

vishhTabhya = pervading

vishhThitaM = situated

vishhNu = the preserver of life

vishhNuH = the Lord MahavishhNu

vishhNutvaM = the quality/state of Brahman/god-realisation

vishhNo = O Lord Visnu

visargaH = creation

visR^ijan.h = giving up

visR^ijami = I create

visR^ijya = putting aside

vistaraH = the expanse

vistarashaH = in detail

vistarasya = to the extent

vistareNa = in detail

vistaraM = the expansion

vistarita = expanded

visphuraNai = by emanation

vismayaH = wonder

vismayapadaM = object of wonder

vismayavishhTaH = being overwhelmed with wonder

vismitaH = in wonder

vihaga = bird

vihaya = giving up

vihara = in relaxation

viharasya = recreation

vihariNi = one who strolls

vihia = vihitAa, understood

vihita = prescribed

vihitaM = directed

vihitaH = used

vihitan.h = arranged

vihina = without

vihina = bereft

vihR^i = to roam

vikshipta = mental aggitation

vikshepa = confusion

viGYataM = has been known

viGYatuM = to know

viGYana = comprehension, Science

viGYanaM = numinous knowledge

viGYanamaya = full of greater(scientific in a way) knowledge

viGYani = scientist

viGYaya = after understanding

vijati = to fan

vita = free from

vitaragaH = in the renounced order of life

vithi = (f) road, way

vira = the sentiment of valor

viraJNcha = name of Brahma

virabhadrasana = the arrow posture

virasana = the hero posture

virya = vitality, enthusiasm, semen

viryaM = valour

viryavan.h = very powerful

viryaM = glories

viksh.h = to see

vikshante = are beholding

vikshya = having seen

vR^ika = wolf

vR^ikodaraH = the voracious eater (Bhima)

vR^ijanaM = the ocean of miseries

vR^iNute = chooses

vR^it.h = to exist

vR^itta = desire

vR^ittapatrika = (f) newspaper

vR^ittisthaH = whose occupation

vR^itti = tendancy

vR^itha = (indecl) wanton, uselessly, idly

vR^iddha = aged

vR^iddhaH = old man

vR^iddhashravaH = having become old with years of hearing knowledge

vR^intam.h = (n) the stem of a flower

vR^intakam.h = (n) brinjal

vR^inda = (n) group

vR^ishashaila = vRisha hill

vR^ishchika = The Zodiacal Sign of Scorpio

vR^ishchikasana = the scorpion posture

vR^ishhabha = The Zodiacal Sign of Taurus

vR^ishhabhaH = (m) bull, the Zodiacal Sign of Taurus

vR^ishhTi = rain

vR^ishhTiH = (m) rain, showers

vR^ishhNinaM = of the descendants of VRishhNi

vR^iksha = tree

vR^ikshasana = the tree posture

vR^ikshi = I sing. atmane. `injunctive’ of vRij, `to avoid

vegaM = urges

vegaH = speed

veNi = (f) pigtail, ponytail

veNuH = flute

vetanam.h = (n) salary

vetta = the knower

vetti = knows

vettha = know

veda = Ancient Indian Religious Texts

vedaH = (masc.nom.sing.)the Veda

vedakrama = vedas

vedana = feelings of pain

vedayaGYa = by sacrifice

vedavadarataH = supposed followers of the Vedas

vedavit.h = the knower of the Vedas

vedavidaH = persons conversant with the Vedas

vedaH = Vedic literatures

vedanaM = of all the Vedas

vedanta = Vedic method of Self-Realization

vedantakR^it.h = the compiler of the Vedanta

vedantavedyo = one knowable thro’ `upanishat.h’

veditavyaM = to be understood

vedituM = to understand

vede = in the Vedic literature

vedeshhu = Vedic literatures

vedaiH = by study of the Vedas

vedyaM = what is to be known

vedyaH = knowable

vedhas.h = brahma

vedhase = to the Brahman (like rAma)

vepathuH = trembling of the body

vepathumathi = she who is sweating

vepamanaH = trembling

vela = (fem) time

vesha = dress

veshhaH = make-ups/garbs/roles

veshhTiH = (m) dhoti

vai = emphasis

vaikuNTha = the abode of Vishnu

vaikuNThadhipati = ruler of vaikuNTha which is Vishnu

vaidyaH = doctor

vainateyaH = Garuda

vaimanikaH = (m) pilot

vaiyakaraNa = Grammar

vaiyakaraNasyaishhaH = to the grammarian+this

vaira = enmity

vairagya = uncolouredness, not desiring physical objects

vairagyaM = renunciation

vairagyeNa = by detachment

vairajya = excelent rulership

vairiNaM = greatest enemy

vairishhu = on enemies

vaisheshika = one of the schools (systems) of Indian philosophy

vaishya = the caste of merchants and professionals

vaishyaH = mercantile people

vaishravaNa = son of Vishravas (typically applied only to Kubera)

vaishvanaraH = My plenary portion as the digesting fire

vaishhNava = a large sect of the followers of Sri Vishnu

vaiGYanikaH = (m) scientist

vyakta = made known

vyaktayaH = living entities

vyaktiM = personality

vyajanam.h = (n) fan

vyatitarishhyati = surpasses

vyatitani = have passed

vyatta = open

vyathanti = are disturbed

vyathayanti = are distressing

vyatha = trouble

vyathishhThaH = be disturbed

vyadarayat.h = shattered

vyapadesha = (m) mention, name

vyapashrayaH = taking shelter of

vyapashritya = particularly taking shelter

vyapetabhiH = free from all fear

vyabhicharin.h = adj. deviate

vyaya-bhava = House of Expenditure/Loss or 12th

vyara.nsit.h = passed, elapsed

vyartha = u(adj)seless, purposelss

vyavakalanam.h = (n) subtraction

vyavachchhetsiH = cut or dissect

vyavasayaH = enterprise or adventure

vyavasayatmika = resolute in KRishhNa consciousness

vyavasitaH = situated in determination

vyavasita = engaged

vyavasthitan.h = situated

vyavasthitiH = the situation

vyavasthitau = put under regulations

vyavasitaH = have decided

vyashema = a

vyasana = addiction

vyakula = alarmed (adj)

vyakulatva = (neut) sorrow, concern

vyakulita = she who has been afflicted/affected

vyaghraH = (m) tiger

vyadhaH = (m) hunter

vyadhi = disease

vyadhi = illness

vyana = one of the vital airs, circulates energy all over the body

vyapara = affair (masc)

vyaptaM = pervaded

vyapya = pervading

vyamishreNa = by equivocal

vyala = elephant

vyasaH = Vyasa

vyasaN^ga = varied interests, (involvement in) many hobbies

vyasaprasadat.h = by the mercy of Vyasadeva

vyasochchhishhThaM = vyAsa + uchchhishhThaM:by VyAsa + mouth-dropped

vyaharan.h = vibrating

vyudasya = laying aside

vyuDhaM = arranged in a military phalanx

vyuDhaM = arranged

vyomachariNaH = the people who wander over the sky (and `pAtAla’\bhUtala’)

vyoman.h = (n) the sky

vraja = go

vrajeta = walks

vraNa = injury, wound (masc, neut)

vrata = austerities

vrataH = avowed

vrata = disciplined course

vriddha = old, aged

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

• Vaideha: altro nome per Janaka. “Il Ramayana” di Manonath dasa

• Vaishravana: figlio di Vishrava, altro nome di Kuvera. “Il Ramayana” di Manonath dasa

• vaishya: classe sociale di commercianti e coltivatori. “Il Ramayana” di Manonath dasa

• Vali: re dei Vanara, fratello di Sugriva. “Il Ramayana” di Manonath dasa

• Valmiki: il saggio che scrisse il Ramayana. “Il Ramayana” di Manonath dasa

• Vanara: una razza di uomini-scimmie. “Il Ramayana” di Manonath dasa

• Vasishtha: saggio famoso e rispettato, citato spesso nella lette¬ratura vedica. “Il Ramayana” di Manonath dasa

• Varuna: il deva delle acque. “Il Ramayana” di Manonath dasa

• Vayavya: un’arma che provoca un’enorme spostamento d’aria. “Il Ramayana” di Manonath dasa

• Vayu: il deva del vento. “Il Ramayana” di Manonath dasa

• Vedavati: donna asceta oltraggiata da Ravana. Rinasce come Sita. “Il Ramayana” di Manonath dasa

• Veda: significa letteralmente “conoscenza”. Tutta quella lettera¬tura che tratta della conoscenza esposta dagli antichi saggi in¬dia. “Il Ramayana” di Manonath dasa

• Vedanta: commento filosofico dei Veda. “Il Ramayana” di Manonath dasa

• Vibhishana: il virtuoso fratello minore di Ravana. “Il Ramayana” di Manonath dasa

• Vidyujjihva: il marito di Shurpanakha. E’ anche il nome di un ma¬go che viveva a Lanka. “Il Ramayana” di Manonath dasa

• Viradha: rakshasa ucciso da Rama . “Il Ramayana” di Manonath dasa

• Vishnu: espansione eterna di Krishna, la Persona Suprema. “Il Ramayana” di Manonath dasa

• Vishrava: il padre di Kuvera e di Ravana. “Il Ramayana” di Manonath dasa

• Visvakarma: l’architetto celeste. “Il Ramayana” di Manonath dasa

• Visvamitra: un famoso saggio dei tempi vedici. “Il Ramayana” di Manonath dasa

• Vivasvan: il deva del sole. “Il Ramayana” di Manonath dasa

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

* Vaisampayana: discepolo di Vyasa, narrò il Maha-bharata duran¬te il sacrificio dei serpenti di Janamejaya. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa

* vaishya: una delle quattro divisioni sociali quella dei com¬mercianti e dei proprietari terrieri. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa

* Valala: il nome che Bhima assunse durante il periodo in inco¬gnito. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa

* Valmiki: il saggio che scrisse il Ramayana. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa

* Vana Parva: uno dei capitoli del Maha-bharata. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa

* Vanara: il popolo di scimmie che aiutò Rama a ritrovare Sita. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa

* Varanavata: la città dove i Pandava furono mandati per essere arsi vivi nella loro casa. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa

* Varuna: il deva dell’oceano. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa

* varuna-astra: l’arma presieduta da Varuna; come effetto spri¬giona un’enorme quantità d’acqua. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa

* Vasishtha: un grande saggio. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa

* Vasu: otto importanti esseri celesti. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa

* Vasudeva: il padre di Krishna. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa

* Vasuki: il re dei naga. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa

* Vayu: il deva del vento. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa

* Veda: una vasta raccolta di libri compilati da Vyasadeva; è la conoscenza più completa ed esatta che il genere umano abbia mai avuto. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa

* Vibhishana: l’anziano re di Lanka; era il fratello minore di Ravana e Kumbhakarna. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa

* Vicitravirya: il figlio di Shantanu e Satyavati. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa

* Vidura: una delle incarnazione di Dharma; nacque come fratello minore di Dritarashtra. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa

* Vijaya: uno dei due guardiani dei pianeti Vaikuntha maledetti dai Kumara a nascere tre volte come demoni in questo mondo mate¬riale. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa

* Vikarna: era uno dei pochi figli virtuosi di Dritarashtra. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa

* Vinata: una delle mogli di Kashyapa; da lei nacque Garuda e Aruna. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa

* Vinda: un principe che combattè dalla parte dei Kurava. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa

* Virata: il re di Matsya che combattè per i Pandava. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa

* Virata Parva: uno dei capitoli del Maha-bharata. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa

* Vishnu: uno delle espansioni di Krishna; significa “sostegno di tutto ciò che esiste”; attraverso di lui gli universi materia¬li sono manifestati. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa

* Vishoka: l’auriga di Bhima. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa

* Vishvakarma: l’architetto dei deva. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa

* Vishvamitra: uno dei saggi più grandi; fu protagonista di im¬prese sovrumane. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa

* Vishvarupa: divenuto il guru di Indra, fu poi ucciso dal suo stesso discepolo. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa

* Vivashvan: il nome proprio del deva del sole. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa

* Vivimsati: uno dei figli di Dritarashtra. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa

* Vraja: vedi Vrindavana. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa

* Vrika: combattè dalla parte dei Pandava. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa

* Vrikodara: uno dei nomi di Bhima. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa

* Vrindavana: villaggio dell’India dove, circa 5.000 anni fa, Krishna rivelò i suoi divertimenti trascendentali in compagnia dei puri devoti; non c’è differenza tra questo luogo terreno e Goloka Vrindavana, ma tale visione è possibile solo per colui che è completamente purificato. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa

* Vrishaparva: antico re degli asura che poi si dedicò alla pra¬tica dello yoga. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa

* Vrishasena: uno dei figli di Karna. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa

* Vrishni: la stirpe in cui Krishna apparve. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa

* Vritra: un grande asura ucciso da Indra. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa

* Vyasa: il saggiò che dette ordine e mise per iscritto i Veda; fu il padre di Dritarashtra, Pandu e Vidura; suoi altri nomi: Vyasadeva, Krishna Dvaipayana, Veda-vyasa. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa

* vyuha: l’organizzazione strategica degli eserciti. “Il Maha-bharata”, di Manonath dasa

Vallabha

What is the exact meaning of the word ‘VALLABH’ in the Name of SARDAR VALLABH BHAI PATEL?
4 years ago Report Abuse

kcsadvoc…
Best Answer – Chosen by Voters

The word ‘vallabh’ is the changed form of the original Sanskrit “Vallabha”. It has got several meanings, principal among them being:
Lover, beloved, supreme, a chief herdsman, a favourite person.
Though a generic word and a common noun, in devotional literature, it is used to denote the word ‘husband’, in conjunction with the main feminine character of epics and legends. Thus “Jaanaki vallabha” would refer to Sri Rama,( A former CM of Orissa was “Janaki Ballabh Patnaik”). Parvati Vallabha would refer to Lord Shiva.
With the popularity of the Krishna legends, especially after the advent of Jayadeva’s Geeta Govindam, Srimad Bhagavatam, attributed to Sage Vyasa, though not with any historical authority, and the currency of the legend of Radha, the word “Vallabha”, by comon implication has come to mean Sri Krishna. In The sloka “Achyutam Keshavam Rama NaaraayaNam”, Sri Krishna is referred to as “Gopikaa Vallabham”. In the moola mantra recited during Maha Sudarshana Homa, reference is : “Krishnaaya Govindaaya, Gopi jana vallabhaaya”.
One of the principal Acharyas of Hindu philosophical schools was Vallabhacharya, who stressed on Krishna bhakti.

Naming of children by the name of God, is a fond tradition in India and hence the name.

“Bhai” is commonly used as middle word in a name, in the state of Gujarat. I have seen children referring to father as “babu bhai”. The origin and development of such a usage is not clearly researched.

Patel is the name of the community, in which he was born.

Vitanda

Among logicians there are different kinds of argument. Su

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